PIRE Publication - Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015


The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context.


Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
Afshin, Ashkan
Alexander, Lily T.
Anderson, H. Ross
Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
Biryukov, Stan
Brauer, Michael
Burnett, Richard
Cercy, Kelly
Charlson, Fiona J.
Cohen, Aaron J.
Dandona, Lalit
Estep, Kara
Ferrari, Alize J.
Frostad, Joseph J.
Fullman, Nancy
Gething, Peter W.
Godwin, William W.
Griswold, Max
Kinfu, Yohannes
Kyu, Hmwe H.
Larson, Heidi J.
Liang, Xiaofeng
Lim, Stephen S.
Liu, Patrick Y.
Lopez, Alan D.
Lozano, Rafael
Marczak, Laurie
Mensah, George A.
Mokdad, Ali H.
Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
Naghavi, Mohsen
Neal, Bruce
Reitsma, Marissa B.
Roth, Gregory A.
Salomon, Joshua A.
Sur, Patrick J.
Vos, Theo
Wagner, Joseph A.
Wang, Haidong
Zhao, Yi
Zhou, Maigeng
Aasvang, Gunn Marit
Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
Abbafati, Cristiana
Abbas, Kaja M.
Abd-Allah, Foad
Abdulle, Abdishakur M.
Abera, Semaw Ferede
Abraham, Biju
Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
Abyu, Gebre Yitayih
Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi
Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi
Ademi, Zanfina
Adou, Arsène Kouablan
Adsuar, José C.
Agardh, Emilie Elisabet
Agarwal, Arnav
Agrawal, Anurag
Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
Ajala, Oluremi N.
Akinyemiju, Tomi F.
Al-Aly, Ziyad
Alam, Khurshid
Alam, Noore K. M.
Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed
Aldridge, Robert William
Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
Ali, Raghib
Alkerwi, Ala'a
Alla, François
Allebeck, Peter
Alsharif, Ubai
Altirkawi, Khalid A.
Martin, Elena Alvarez
Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
Amare, Azmeraw T.
Amberbir, Alemayehu
Amegah, Adeladza Kofi
Amini, Heresh
Ammar, Walid
Amrock, Stephen Marc
Andersen, Hjalte H.
Anderson, Benjamin O.
Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
Anwari, Palwasha
Ärnlöv, Johan
Artaman, Al
Asayesh, Hamid
Asghar, Rana Jawad
Assadi, Reza
Atique, Suleman
Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
Awasthi, Ashish
Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
Azzopardi, Peter
Bacha, Umar
Badawi, Alaa
Bahit, Maria C.
Balakrishnan, Kalpana
Barac, Aleksandra
Barber, Ryan M.
Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
Bärnighausen, Till
Barquera, Simon
Barregard, Lars
Barrero, Lope H.
Basu, Sanjay
Batis, Carolina
Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
Beardsley, Justin
Bedi, Neeraj
Beghi, Ettore
Bell, Michelle L.
Bello, Aminu K.
Bennett, Derrick A.
Bensenor, Isabela M.
Berhane, Adugnaw
Bernabé, Eduardo
Betsu, Balem Demtsu
Beyene, Addisu Shunu
Bhala, Neeraj
Bhansali, Anil
Bhatt, Samir
Biadgilign, Sibhatu
Bikbov, Boris
Bisanzio, Donal
Bjertness, Espen
Blore, Jed D.
Borschmann, Rohan
Boufous, Soufiane
Bourne, Rupert R. A.
Brainin, Michael
Brazinova, Alexandra
Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
Brenner, Hermann
Broday, David M.
Brugha, Traolach S.
Brunekreef, Bert
Butt, Zahid A.
Cahill, Leah E.
Calabria, Bianca
Campos-Nonato, Ismael Ricardo
Cárdenas, Rosario
Carpenter, David O.
Casey, Daniel C.
Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo
Castro, Ruben Estanislao
Catalá-López, Ferrán
Chang, Jung-Chen
Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
Chibalabala, Mirriam
Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel
Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
Chitheer, Abdulaal A.
Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine
Christensen, Hanne
Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
Ciobanu, Liliana G.
Coates, Matthew M.
Colquhoun, Samantha M.
Cooper, Leslie Trumbull
Cooperrider, Kimberly
Cornaby, Leslie
Cortinovis, Monica
Crump, John A.
Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia
Damasceno, Albertino
Dandona, Rakhi
Darby, Sarah C.
Dargan, Paul I.
das Neves, José
Davis, Adrian C.
Davletov, Kairat
de Castro, E. Filipa
De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa
De Leo, Diego
Degenhardt, Louisa
Del Gobbo, Liana C.
del Pozo-Cruz, Borja
Dellavalle, Robert P.
Deribew, Amare
Jarlais, Don C. Des
Dharmaratne, Samath D.
Dhillon, Preet K.
Diaz-Torné, Cesar
Dicker, Daniel
Ding, Eric L.
Dorsey, E. Ray
Doyle, Kerrie E.
Driscoll, Tim R.
Duan, Leilei
Dubey, Manisha
Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
Elyazar, Iqbal
Endries, Aman Yesuf
Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
Erskine, Holly E.
Eshrati, Babak
Esteghamati, Alireza
Fahimi, Saman
Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino
Farid, Talha A.
Farinha, Carla Sofia e Sa
Faro, André
Farvid, Maryam S.
Farzadfar, Farshad
Feigin, Valery L.
Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
Fernandes, Jefferson G.
Fischer, Florian
Fitchett, Joseph R. A.
Fleming, Tom
Foigt, Nataliya
Foreman, Kyle
Fowkes, F. Gerry R.
Franklin, Richard C.
Fürst, Thomas
Futran, Neal D.
Gakidou, Emmanuela
Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.
Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
Geleijnse, Johanna M.
Gessner, Bradford D.
Giref, Ababi Zergaw
Giroud, Maurice
Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
Goenka, Shifalika
Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen
Gomez-Dantes, Hector
Gona, Philimon
Goodridge, Amador
Gopalani, Sameer Vali
Gotay, Carolyn C.
Goto, Atsushi
Gouda, Hebe N.
Gugnani, Harish Chander
Guillemin, Francis
Guo, Yuming
Gupta, Rahul
Gupta, Rajeev
Gutiérrez, Reyna A.
Haagsma, Juanita A.
Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
Haile, Demewoz
Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
Halasa, Yara A.
Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
Hamidi, Samer
Handal, Alexis J.
Hankey, Graeme J.
Hao, Yuantao
Harb, Hilda L.
Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
Haro, Josep Maria
Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh
Hassen, Tahir Ahmed
Havmoeller, Rasmus
Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz
Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco
Heydarpour, Pouria
Hoek, Hans W.
Hoffman, Howard J.
Horino, Masako
Horita, Nobuyuki
Hosgood, H. Dean
Hoy, Damian G.
Hsairi, Mohamed
Htet, Aung Soe
Hu, Guoqing
Huang, John J.
Husseini, Abdullatif
Hutchings, Sally J.
Huybrechts, Inge
Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
Idrisov, Bulat T.
Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
Inoue, Manami
Jacobs, Troy A.
Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
Jahanmehr, Nader
Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
Jansen, Henrica A. F. M.
Jassal, Simerjot K.
Javanbakht, Mehdi
Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
Jee, Sun Ha
Jeemon, Panniyammakal
Jha, Vivekanand
Jiang, Ying
Jibat, Tariku
Jin, Ye
Johnson, Catherine O.
Jonas, Jost B.
Kabir, Zubair
Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
Kamal, Ritul
Kan, Haidong
Karch, André
Karema, Corine Kakizi
Karimkhani, Chante
Kasaeian, Amir
Kaul, Anil
Kawakami, Norito
Kazi, Dhruv S.
Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
Kemp, Andrew Haddon
Kengne, Andre Pascal
Keren, Andre
Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
Khader, Yousef Saleh
Khan, Abdur Rahman
Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
Khan, Gulfaraz
Khang, Young-Ho
Khatibzadeh, Shahab
Khera, Sahil
Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer
Khubchandani, Jagdish
Kieling, Christian
Kim, Cho-il
Kim, Daniel
Kimokoti, Ruth W.
Kissoon, Niranjan
Kivipelto, Miia
Knibbs, Luke D.
Kokubo, Yoshihiro
Kopec, Jacek A.
Koul, Parvaiz A.
Koyanagi, Ai
Kravchenko, Michael
Kromhout, Hans
Krueger, Hans
Ku, Tiffany
Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.
Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
Kuipers, Ernst J.
Kumar, G. Anil
Kwan, Gene F.
Lal, Dharmesh Kumar
Lalloo, Ratilal
Lallukka, Tea
Lan, Qing
Larsson, Anders
Latif, Asma Abdul
Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena Beatriz
Leasher, Janet L.
Leigh, James
Leung, Janni
Levi, Miriam
Li, Xiaohong
Li, Yichong
Liang, Juan
Liu, Shiwei
Lloyd, Belinda K.
Logroscino, Giancarlo
Lotufo, Paulo A.
Lunevicius, Raimundas
MacIntyre, Michael
Mahdavi, Mahdi
Majdan, Marek
Majeed, Azeem
Malekzadeh, Reza
Malta, Deborah Carvalho
Manamo, Wondimu Ayele Ayele
Mapoma, Chabila C.
Marcenes, Wagner
Martin, Randall V.
Martinez-Raga, Jose
Masiye, Felix
Matsushita, Kunihiro
Matzopoulos, Richard
Mayosi, Bongani M.
McGrath, John J.
McKee, Martin
Meaney, Peter A.
Medina, Catalina
Mehari, Alem
Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola
Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
Melaku, Yohannes Adama
Memish, Ziad A.
Mendoza, Walter
Mensink, Gert B. M.
Meretoja, Atte
Meretoja, Tuomo J.
Mesfin, Yonatan Moges
Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
Miller, Ted R.
Mills, Edward J.
Mirarefin, Mojde
Misganaw, Awoke
Mock, Charles N.
Mohammadi, Alireza
Mohammed, Shafiu
Mola, Glen Liddell D.
Monasta, Lorenzo
Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez
Montico, Marcella
Morawska, Lidia
Mori, Rintaro
Mozaffarian, Dariush
Mueller, Ulrich O.
Mullany, Erin
Mumford, John Everett
Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana
Nachega, Jean B.
Naheed, Aliya
Nangia, Vinay
Nassiri, Nariman
Newton, John N.
Ng, Marie
Nguyen, Quyen Le
Nisar, Muhammad Imran
Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie
Norheim, Ole F.
Norman, Rosana E.
Norrving, Bo
Nyakarahuka, Luke
Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf
Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
Oh, In-Hwan
Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
Olivares, Pedro R.
Olsen, Helen
Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
Opio, John Nelson
Oren, Eyal
Orozco, Ricardo
Ortiz, Alberto
Ota, Erika
Pa, Mahesh
Pana, Adrian
Park, Eun-Kee
Parry, Charles D.
Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
Patel, Tejas
Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina
Patil, Snehal T.
Patten, Scott B.
Patton, George C.
Pearce, Neil
Pereira, David M.
Perico, Norberto
Pesudovs, Konrad
Petzold, Max
Phillips, Michael Robert
Piel, Frédéric B.
Pillay, Julian David
Plass, Dietrich
Polinder, Suzanne
Pond, Constance D.
Pope, C. Arden
Pope, Daniel
Popova, Svetlana
Poulton, Richie G.
Pourmalek, Farshad
Prasad, Noela M.
Qorbani, Mostafa
Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.
Radfar, Amir
Rafay, Anwar
Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Rahman, Mahfuzar
Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
Rahman, Sajjad Ur
Rai, Rajesh Kumar
Rajsic, Sasa
Raju, Murugesan
Ram, Usha
Rana, Saleem M.
Ranganathan, Kavitha
Rao, Puja
García, Christian Aspacia Razo
Refaat, Amany H.
Rehm, Colin D.
Rehm, Jürgen
Reinig, Nikolas
Remuzzi, Giuseppe
Resnikoff, Serge
Ribeiro, Antonio L.
Rivera, Juan A.
Roba, Hirbo Shore
Rodriguez, Alina
Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia
Rojas-Rueda, David
Roman, Yesenia
Ronfani, Luca
Roshandel, Gholamreza
Rothenbacher, Dietrich
Roy, Ambuj
Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad
Sanabria, Juan R.
Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores
Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G.
Sandar, Logan
Santomauro, Damian F.
Santos, Itamar S.
Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
Sartorius, Benn
Satpathy, Maheswar
Savic, Miloje
Sawhney, Monika
Schmidhuber, Josef
Schmidt, Maria Inês
Schneider, Ione J. C.
Schöttker, Ben
Schutte, Aletta E.
Schwebel, David C.
Scott, James G.
Seedat, Soraya
Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
Servan-Mori, Edson E.
Shaheen, Amira
Shahraz, Saeid
Shaikh, Masood Ali
Levy, Teresa Shamah
Sharma, Rajesh
She, Jun
Sheikhbahaei, Sara
Shen, Jiabin
Sheth, Kevin N.
Shi, Peilin
Shibuya, Kenji
Shigematsu, Mika
Shin, Min-Jeong
Shiri, Rahman
Shishani, Kawkab
Shiue, Ivy
Shrime, Mark G.
Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
Silverberg, Jonathan I.
Simard, Edgar P.
Sindi, Shireen
Singh, Abhishek
Singh, Jasvinder A.
Singh, Prashant Kumar
Slepak, Erica Leigh
Soljak, Michael
Soneji, Samir
Sorensen, Reed J. D.
Sposato, Luciano A.
Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
Steckling, Nadine
Steel, Nicholas
Stein, Dan J.
Stein, Murray B.
Stöckl, Heidi
Stranges, Saverio
Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
Sunguya, Bruno F.
Swaminathan, Soumya
Sykes, Bryan L.
Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael
Takahashi, Ken
Talongwa, Roberto Tchio
Tandon, Nikhil
Tanne, David
Tavakkoli, Mohammad
Taye, Belaynew Wasie
Taylor, Hugh R.
Tedla, Bemnet Amare
Tefera, Worku Mekonnen
Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw
Tekle, Dejen Yemane
Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
Thakur, J. S.
Thomas, Bernadette A.
Thomas, Matthew Lloyd
Thomson, Alan J.
Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.
Thrift, Amanda G.
Thurston, George D.
Tillmann, Taavi
Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan
Tobollik, Myriam
Topor-Madry, Roman
Topouzis, Fotis
Towbin, Jeffrey Allen
Tran, Bach Xuan
Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
Tsilimparis, Nikolaos
Tura, Abera Kenay
Tuzcu, Emin Murat
Tyrovolas, Stefanos
Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
Undurraga, Eduardo A.
Uneke, Chigozie Jesse
Uthman, Olalekan A.
van Donkelaar, Aaron
van Os, Jim
Varakin, Yuri Y.
Vasankari, Tommi
Veerman, J. Lennert
Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
Violante, Francesco S.
Vollset, Stein Emil
Wagner, Gregory R.
Waller, Stephen G.
Wang, Jian Li
Wang, Linhong
Wang, Yanping
Weichenthal, Scott
Weiderpass, Elisabete
Weintraub, Robert G.
Werdecker, Andrea
Westerman, Ronny
Whiteford, Harvey A.
Wijeratne, Tissa
Wiysonge, Charles Shey
Wolfe, Charles D. A.
Won, Sungho
Woolf, Anthony D.
Wubshet, Mamo
Xavier, Denis
Xu, Gelin
Yadav, Ajit Kumar
Yakob, Bereket
Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene
Yano, Yuichiro
Yaseri, Mehdi
Ye, Pengpeng
Yip, Paul
Yonemoto, Naohiro
Yoon, Seok-Jun
Younis, Mustafa Z.
Yu, Chuanhua
Zaidi, Zoubida
Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
Zhu, Jun
Zipkin, Ben
Zodpey, Sanjay
Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
Murray, Christopher J. L.