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PACIFIC INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH AND EVALUATION


    

Canada


Alcohol Interlock and Biomarker Prediction of DUI Risk


Principal Investigator:

Paul Marques

Sponsor:

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
06/13/03 - 05/31/09
This multinational study examined objective alcohol-risk indicators from multiple sources. This study was conducted in Alberta Canada; samples for analysis were shipped to laboratories in the US, Germany, Sweden, and Luxembourg. All 534 DUI offenders in the study conducted in provided informed consent and used an alcohol ignition interlock device, the record of which is a strong predictor of future DUI .The study evaluated blood-borne biomarkers of alcohol-related problems (ALT, AST, %CDT, GGT, MCV) and some direct markers of consumption (blood PEth, EtG in hair and FAEE in hair, and EtG/EtS in urine). These markers together with driver records and validated self-report assessment instruments (TLFB, AUDIT, DIS-AM, TRI, DrInC) were used to develop aggregate predictive profiles for future DUI.

 

Exploration of Alcohol Interlock, Biomarker and Psychometric Data


Principal Investigator:

Paul Marques

Sponsor:

NIAAA
03/01/12 - 11/28/13
New technological advances in the fields of alcohol safety and treatment sciences hold the promise of improving detection and control of alcohol impaired driving. Drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) at or above the .08 g/dL level are involved in a fatal crash on average every 45 minutes every day. This study proposes to develop end-user risk analysis decision guides based on an exploration of two completely independent and objective technologies to scale the risk of impaired driving by DUI offenders: alcohol biomarkers from blood/urine, and the patterned record of serial BAC tests provided by drivers who use alcohol ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Data from this study is based on blood, urine and hair alcohol biomarkers of DUI drivers from Alberta, Canada. Biological markers were measured by collaborating laboratories in Canada, USA, Luxembourg, Germany and Sweden. Failed IID BAC tests strongly predict subsequent driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) convictions. Blood and urine derived alcohol biomarkers also predict driver alcohol risk. Research has now documented convergence of these behavioral and biological methods of quantifying driver risk; the strongest biomarker predictors of driver risk are PEth, EtG, GGT, and %CDT. Alcohol biomarkers, which are measureable long after BAC has fallen to zero, allow for a more stable index of alcohol exposure. Alcohol biomarkers, IID BAC tests and psychometric assessments converge and can now be studied together. This project examines independent source data on DUIs, and will develop end user tools for detecting and codifying characteristics of the highest risk drivers who warrant more intensive control and monitoring. The basic research data to be explored has 534 IID drivers; 300 of them provided baseline blood for 6 major alcohol biomarkers (including GGT, PEth and %CDT). Subsamples of 90-150 DUI provided urine or hair for the other markers. Driver records, demographic and psychometric assessment data (DrinC, AUDIT, TLFB, TRI) are available for over 500. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Alcohol road crashes are estimated to cost over $100 billion annually and lead to the death or injury of hundreds of thousands of people. The proposed work is directed toward reducing alcohol impaired driving toll through the convergence of independent objective methods (behavioral/performance and biomedical) that will be used to scale driver risk. This project seeks to explore, combine, and extract information from existing data sets and use this new information to create draft decision tools for those on the front line who help manage the societal problem of alcohol impaired driving.

 

Patterns and Predictors in the Alcohol Interlock Record


Principal Investigator:

Paul Marques

Sponsor:

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
09/01/01 - 02/28/04
This study was a secondary data analysis of the interlock records from large interlock programs in Quebec, Canada and Texas. Combined with Alberta data we had on file, records from nearly 40 million breath tests of 14000 offenders make it by far the most comprehensive evaluation of interlock users yet. Results showed rates of elevated BAC tests are the strongest predictors of future DUI ever reported. Early morning BAC elevations are further predictive. The findings will have substantial practical relevance for public policy.

 

Providing Health Services to DUI's Through Interlock Program


Principal Investigator:

Robert Voas

Sponsor:

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
09/01/94 - 05/31/00
This was a five-year project to study the effectiveness of ignition interlocks in conjunction with case management services for first and multiple DUI offenders in Alberta, Canada. It takes advantage of the opportunity to meet with interlock customers when they bring their vehicles into the interlock service center for monthly service and downloading of data logger information. A two-site comparison involves the use of case managers to link offenders to health and social services to improve problem resolution by adopting a motivational interviewing approach. Case managers use the monthly data logger results to initiate discussions about offender drinking-and-driving patterns. Data analysis at both sites will include a battery of pre- and post-tests, data logger results, and drivers’ records during and after interlock.