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PACIFIC INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH AND EVALUATION


    

Sweden


Alcohol Interlock and Biomarker Prediction of DUI Risk


Principal Investigator:

Paul Marques

Sponsor:

National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
06/13/03 - 05/31/09
This multinational study examined objective alcohol-risk indicators from multiple sources. This study was conducted in Alberta Canada; samples for analysis were shipped to laboratories in the US, Germany, Sweden, and Luxembourg. All 534 DUI offenders in the study conducted in provided informed consent and used an alcohol ignition interlock device, the record of which is a strong predictor of future DUI .The study evaluated blood-borne biomarkers of alcohol-related problems (ALT, AST, %CDT, GGT, MCV) and some direct markers of consumption (blood PEth, EtG in hair and FAEE in hair, and EtG/EtS in urine). These markers together with driver records and validated self-report assessment instruments (TLFB, AUDIT, DIS-AM, TRI, DrInC) were used to develop aggregate predictive profiles for future DUI.

 

Exploration of Alcohol Interlock, Biomarker and Psychometric Data


Principal Investigator:

Paul Marques

Sponsor:

NIAAA
03/01/12 - 11/28/13
New technological advances in the fields of alcohol safety and treatment sciences hold the promise of improving detection and control of alcohol impaired driving. Drivers with illegal blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) at or above the .08 g/dL level are involved in a fatal crash on average every 45 minutes every day. This study proposes to develop end-user risk analysis decision guides based on an exploration of two completely independent and objective technologies to scale the risk of impaired driving by DUI offenders: alcohol biomarkers from blood/urine, and the patterned record of serial BAC tests provided by drivers who use alcohol ignition interlock devices (IIDs). Data from this study is based on blood, urine and hair alcohol biomarkers of DUI drivers from Alberta, Canada. Biological markers were measured by collaborating laboratories in Canada, USA, Luxembourg, Germany and Sweden. Failed IID BAC tests strongly predict subsequent driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) convictions. Blood and urine derived alcohol biomarkers also predict driver alcohol risk. Research has now documented convergence of these behavioral and biological methods of quantifying driver risk; the strongest biomarker predictors of driver risk are PEth, EtG, GGT, and %CDT. Alcohol biomarkers, which are measureable long after BAC has fallen to zero, allow for a more stable index of alcohol exposure. Alcohol biomarkers, IID BAC tests and psychometric assessments converge and can now be studied together. This project examines independent source data on DUIs, and will develop end user tools for detecting and codifying characteristics of the highest risk drivers who warrant more intensive control and monitoring. The basic research data to be explored has 534 IID drivers; 300 of them provided baseline blood for 6 major alcohol biomarkers (including GGT, PEth and %CDT). Subsamples of 90-150 DUI provided urine or hair for the other markers. Driver records, demographic and psychometric assessment data (DrinC, AUDIT, TLFB, TRI) are available for over 500. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: Alcohol road crashes are estimated to cost over $100 billion annually and lead to the death or injury of hundreds of thousands of people. The proposed work is directed toward reducing alcohol impaired driving toll through the convergence of independent objective methods (behavioral/performance and biomedical) that will be used to scale driver risk. This project seeks to explore, combine, and extract information from existing data sets and use this new information to create draft decision tools for those on the front line who help manage the societal problem of alcohol impaired driving.

 

Pricing Policies and Control of Tobacco in Europe


Principal Investigator:

David Levy

Sponsor:

European Commission
02/11/09 - 02/10/12
OBJECTIVES: 1.  To expand the SimSmoke model and modify it for use within the EU context. The model will be used to show the impact of policies on smoking prevalence, average quantity smoked, tobacco consumption per capita, revenues from tobacco taxes, and smoking attributable deaths. These effects will be shown for all adults, and by age and gender groups 2.  To examine the impact on smoking prevalence, quantity smoked, total cigarettes pur-chased, tax revenues and deaths of tax policies alone 3.  To examine the impact of smuggling policies on how tax policies affect outcomes. 4.  To examine the impact of smoking cessation services alone and their interaction with fiscal policy 5.  To examine the impact of smoking bans alone and their interaction with fiscal policy 6.  To examine the impact of advertising and promotion alone and their interaction with fiscal policy 7.  To examine the impact of mass media campaigns alone and their interaction with fiscal pol-icy 8.  To examine the impact of health warning labels alone and their interaction with fiscal policy 9.  To examine the impact of product regulation alone and their interaction with fiscal policy 10.  To examine the association between smokeless tobacco and cigarette consumption, and the role of smokeless tobacco in ex-smokers.