E-cigarettes as a source of toxic and potentially carcinogenic metals
Environmental Research (2017)
Hess, Catherine Ann ; Olmedo, Pablo; Navas-Acien, Ana; Goessler, Walter; Cohen, Joanna E.; Rule, Ana Maria
Background and aims The popularity of electronic cigarette devices is growing worldwide. The health impact of e-cigarette use, however, remains unclear. E-cigarettes are marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes. The aim of this research was the characterization and quantification of toxic metal concentrations in five, nationally popular brands of cig-a-like e-cigarettes. Methods We analyzed the cartomizer liquid in 10 cartomizer refills for each of five brands by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results All of the tested metals (cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and nickel) were found in the e-liquids analyzed. Across all analyzed brands, mean (SD) concentrations ranged from 4.89 (0.893) to 1970 ( 1540 ) µg/L for lead, 53.9 ( 6.95 ) to 2110 ( 5220 ) µg/L for chromium and 58.7 (22.4) to 22,600 ( 24,400 ) µg/L for nickel. Manganese concentrations ranged from 28.7 ( 9.79 ) to 6910.2 ( 12,200 ) µg/L. We found marked variability in nickel and chromium concentration within and between brands, which may come from heating elements. Conclusion Additional research is needed to evaluate whether e-cigarettes represent a relevant exposure pathway for toxic metals in users. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Environmental Research is the property of Academic Press Inc. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
Perceptions of e-cigarettes among Black youth in California
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (2017)
Hess, C.A. ; Antin, T.M.J. ; Annechino, R. ; Hunt, G.
Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates
Injury Prevention (2017)
Cryer, C.; Miller, T. R. ; Lyons, R. A.; Macpherson, A. K.; Perez, K.; Petridou, E. T.; Dessypris, N.; Davie, G. S.; Gulliver, P. J.; Lauritsen, J.; Boufous, S.; Lawrence, B. ; de Graaf, B.; Steiner, C. A.
BACKGROUND: Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed based on diagnoses with a high probability of inpatient admission (PrA). The aim of this paper was to identify diagnoses with estimated high PrA for selected developed countries. METHODS: The study population was injured persons of all ages who attended emergency department (ED) for their injury in regions of Canada, Denmark, Greece, Spain and the USA. International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-9 or ICD-10 4-digit/character injury diagnosis-specific ED attendance and inpatient admission counts were provided, based on a common protocol. Diagnosis-specific and region-specific PrAs with 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The results confirmed that femoral fractures have high PrA across all countries studied. Strong evidence for high PrA also exists for fracture of base of skull with cerebral laceration and contusion; intracranial haemorrhage; open fracture of radius, ulna, tibia and fibula; pneumohaemothorax and injury to the liver and spleen. Slightly weaker evidence exists for cerebellar or brain stem laceration; closed fracture of the tibia and fibula; open and closed fracture of the ankle; haemothorax and injury to the heart and lung. CONCLUSIONS: Using a large study size, we identified injury diagnoses with high estimated PrAs. These diagnoses can be used as the basis for more valid international comparisons of life-threatening injury, based on hospital discharge data, for countries with well-developed healthcare and data collection systems.
Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
The Lancet (2016)
Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Dandona, Lalit; Gething, Peter W.; Hay, Simon I.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Larson, Heidi J.; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; Mensah, George A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Pinho, Christine; Salomon, Joshua A.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Vos, Theo; Wang, Haidong; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdallat, Mahmud A.; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Achoki, Tom; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Agarwal, Arnav; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Aldridge, Robert William; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Martin, Elena Alvarez; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Gregory M.; Antoine, Rose Mayerline; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aregay, Atsede Fantahun; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arora, Megha; Arsenijevic, Valentina S. Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Atique, Suleman; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C.; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Bärnighausen, Till; Basu, Sanjay; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Wang, Neeraj Haidong; Bedi,; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Abdulhak, Aref A. Bin