Recent Grants-Projects

Strategies for Preventing Underage Drinking and Other Substance Use in Native American Tribal Communities
Principal Investigator: Roland S. Moore
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

The goal of this proposed R56 research program is to continue the evaluation of complementary interventions designed to address underage alcohol use and abuse among Native American youth residing in and around nine contiguous Indian reservations in rural San Diego County The R56 application will provide the critical bridge to maintain the successful collaboration between Indian Health Council, Inc., Prevention Research Center, and The Scripps Research Institute scientists. Our pilot studies aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for alcohol by Native American youth through a series of environmental and individual interventions have shown evidence of efficacy and have gained acceptability in the communities served by the IHC clinic. The community-based environmental prevention focused on tailoring, and implementing a community mobilization and awareness intervention aimed at reducing the social availability of alcohol from adults, including extended family members. This community-level program was complemented with interventions at the individual level, including implementing and evaluating a culturally tailored motivational interviewing brief intervention to reduce demand for alcohol for American Indian youth 13-20 years of age who are substance users. These individual level interventions were culturally tailored to appropriately address alcohol use by Native American youths from the nine tribes. We are now in the middle of a follow-up aimed to verify which approaches were the most successful. Therefore the overall goal of the present proposal is to support critical Native staff members so that follow-up studies can be completed which will give the crucial data necessary to publish the findings as well as to obtain continued funding to expand and power the study adequately. We will evaluate the effectiveness of these programs by analyzing multiple data sources: (a) outcome data from the Motivational Interviewing trial among tribal youth, (b) data from community youth surveys on youths’ self-reported substance use and related problems including driving under the influence, and (c) process evaluation of the community mobilization intervention. Additionally, a community-wide survey of adults and youth will be undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the three interventions and the mechanisms of behavior change underlying efficacy of those interventions. The data obtained by this R56 project will serve as a basis for a reapplication to address alcohol as well as tobacco and other drug use these American Indian communities and to disseminate methods and techniques to other high-risk American Indian communities. The R56 mechanism will allow the current investigators, including trained American Indian community health researchers, to continue to gather and analyze follow-up data in preparation for that reapplication.
LGBT Adults and Tobacco Stigma: A Qualitative Study
Principal Investigator: Tamar Antin
Sponsor: NCI

The primary focus of this proposed study is to consider the potential unintended consequences of tobacco denormalization strategies for LGBT adults. In particular, we will examine the processes of stigmatization as they relate to tobacco denormalization, tobacco use, and sexual and gender identities. This project expands our research portfolio on tobacco-related stigma. Currently we are funded to examine perceptions of tobacco denormalization among African American young adults in California. We will address the following aims: 1. Understand perceptions of tobacco denormalization strategies and related beliefs and attitudes about the stigmatization of tobacco among LGBT smokers and former smokers in California; 2. Examine the ways in which the stigmatization of tobacco use may intersect with sexual and gender identity stigmas; 3. Explore alternative strategies that may be more effective in reducing the prevalence of smoking among LGBT adults in California. This study includes 2 phases. In Phase 1, we will conduct asynchronous online group interviews in 10 forums where LGBT adults meet and engage online. Phase 2 will consist of 240 in-depth qualitative interviews conducted with LGBT adults who live in California. The sample will be stratified by sexual/gender identity status, smoking status (current smoker/former smoker), and age (young adults/adults) with 15 participants included in each cell. Complementing online group interviews with in-person individual interviews will help to reveal group norms and beliefs as well as the plurality of beliefs within the group to yield a more holistic understanding of study aims. Using a pattern-level approach to the analysis of the narrative data from phases 1 and 2, we will investigate the processes of tobacco-related stigmatization and its relationship to tobacco denormalization for LGBT adults, as well as how the overlapping stigmas of other social identities may shape the experience of tobacco-related stigma for LGBT adults. Results from the study will be disseminated through traditional conference presentations and academic journal publications, as well as through a project website that includes an accessible presentation of study findings and a social media forum to solicit feedback from study participants and people concerned about the high prevalence of smoking among LGBT adults. This application has important implications for developing an alternative and more equitable tobacco prevention strategy that minimizes rather than exacerbates health inequities for LGBT adults. Moreover, this project is situated within a broader public health framework that investigates reasons for unresponsiveness and/or resistance to social norming policies among marginalized minority groups. Findings from this study may have important implications for other types of public health policies as well as implications for researching the persistence of smoking among other minority groups.
SAPT-Block Grant Scope of Work for Substance Abuse Prevention Services
Principal Investigator: Christina Lopez
Sponsor: SAMHSA

Perform prevention evaluation work for the Community Drug Coalition of Lea County under NM BHSD SAPT Block Grant SOW.
Injury costs/impairment database
Principal Investigator: Ted Miller
Sponsor: Univ. of VA

Provide a database product that enables us to review ICD-level injury costs and impairment for various trauma populations.
Alcohol and other drugs: Crash risk for different groups of drivers
Principal Investigator: Eduardo Romano
Sponsor: NIAAA

ABSTRACT: Alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities are no longer declining, but are even increasing in the United States. It has been suggested that this increase in fatalities is partially due to inefficiencies in current policies, in particular a failure to acount for new forms of risks (e.g., alcohol and texting, alcohol and marijuana) and behavioral changes by some population groups previously viewed as being at a low risk of alcohol-related crashes (e.g., young female drivers, Latinas). Simply stated: Some current driving-under-the-influence (DUI) policies may be outdated. Extant DUI laws are based on DUI risk estimates that are nearly two decades old and may not capture the DUI risk that some group of drivers might currently face (e.g., young female drivers; alcohol and marijuana users). Failure to acknowledge the actual risks some population groups are now facing may have contributed to current policies' failure to properly address such risks. This application responds to the program announcement PA-14-338, Secondary Analyses of Existing Alcohol Epidemiology Data (R21), by taking advantage of two unique and recent datasets: the 2007 and 2013 National Roadside Surveys (NRSs) in conjunction with matching fatal crashes in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS, a census of U.S. fatal crashes) to analyze data on the relative risk of selected drivers. The matching of the two most recent NRSs with pertinent FARS data will allow a case-control study that will yield a comprehensive estimation of alcohol-related fatal crash risk (alone and/or in conjunction with marijuana) for specific groups of drivers, as well as an estimation of the maximum number of fatal crashes that could be avoided if corrections to extant policies were made or new policies targeted to the groups at risk were implemented. In summary, this submission focuses on informing policymakers about key target groups of high-risk drivers, particularly those neglected in prior studies. At stake is the efficient use of increasingly scarce resources, for the targeted risk estimates provided by this study will be applied to the design of new laws and programs.
Improving Native American Elder Access to and Use of Healthcare through Effective Health System Navigation
Principal Investigator: Cathleen Willging
Sponsor: NIMHD

ABSTRACT: Major public insurance reforms of the past two decades, i.e., those requiring enrollment into managed care programs, have failed to substantively address the healthcare needs of American Indians in general, let alone the particular needs of American Indian elders, ages 55 years and older, who suffer from poorer quality of life and lower life expectancies compared to all other aging populations in the U.S. American Indian elders represent a neglected group within the nation's healthcare system. Despite the pervasive belief that the Indian Health Service (IHS) will fully address their health-related needs, elders are negatively affected by gaps in insurance and lack of access to healthcare. Since 2014, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, plus state Medicaid expansion, has made it possible for American Indian elders who are not yet eligible for Medicare to benefit from healthcare coverage. The Affordable Care Act is also intended to improve access to and quality of services for seniors in Medicare and includes special provisions to ameliorate healthcare disparities for American Indians. This proposed five-year, community-driven study features a mixed-method, participatory research design to examine insurance-related outreach activities under the Affordable Care Act, help-seeking behavior, and the healthcare experiences of American Indian elders in New Mexico, home to 22 federally-recognized Pueblos and Tribes. This study combines qualitative and quantitative interviews with concept-mapping techniques and focus groups. The information gathered will generate new practical knowledge, grounded in the actual perspectives of American Indian elders and other relevant stakeholders, to improve healthcare practices and policies for a population that has been largely excluded from national and state discussions of healthcare reform. Study data will also inform development and evaluation of culturally tailored programming to enhance understanding and facilitate negotiation of the changing landscape of healthcare by American Indian elders. This work will fill a gap in research on public insurance initiatives, which do not typically focus on the AIE population, and will offer a replicable model for enhancing the effects of the Affordable Care Act on other underserved groups affected by inequities in healthcare.
NM BHSD SAPT Block Grant - Prevention Evaluation
Principal Investigator: Liz Lilliott
Sponsor: SAMHSA/CSAP (SABG)

CONTRACTOR will be the Prevention Evaluator-to perform Prevention Evaluation work for Southwest Center for Health Innovation - Catron County Scope of Work, SAPT Block Grant Scope of Work. This shall include the creation of evaluation processes and protocols, evaluation instruments, evaluation manuals, logic model, evaluation plan, strategic plan, and assist with management plan. CONTRACTOR will perform the following: - Lead process and outcome data collection and analysis as reflected in the OSAP approved scope of work. This includes the analysis of New Mexico Community Survey as required by OSAP. - Lead mid-year reporting (FY16) and annual reporting (FY 15 and FY16) for OSAP scope of work,. - Assist in strategic planning - Guide provider and preventionists in means to insure evidence-based prevention approach, including training preventionists in EBPs and the SPF process. Attending required OSAP recipient meetings. - Guide provider and preventionists in coalition process to support prevention activities - Attend community coalition meetings when possible - Provide additional data collection and analysis when needed and as possible - Assist in grant-writing if resources allow.
Child and Adolescent Inury and Violence Prevention Resource Centers Cooperative Agreement
Principal Investigator: Rebecca Spicer
Sponsor: HRSA

The Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) will continue to operate the CSN Economics and Data Analysis Resource Center (EDARC) from its Calverton, MD office. PIRE will provide analyses of injury incidence and cost data, cost modeling, and cost/benefit information to help CSN determine priorities, understand injury issues, drive action, and evaluate action on child safety. PIRE will track its technical assistance and training (TTA) and other CSN-related activities and provide data and descriptions of these efforts as required for reports and to meet the requests of our MCHB project officer. The CSN EDARC director at PIRE and other CSN EDARC personnel at PIRE will be considered member(s) of the EDC CSN team and participate in meetings and discussions related to the overall mission, scope and work plan for the CSN project. PIRE staff will work as part of the CSN team to accomplish the goals of the CSN project and meet the project outcomes.
Partnership for Success
Principal Investigator: Matthew Courser
Sponsor: SAMHSA - OhioMHAS

Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation (PIRE) Scope of Work Administrative: Organize evaluation team Meet as needed with Oh1oMHAS, CU-VS. and University of Cincinnati-ESC to plan project and to review project progress. Participate in meetings and trainings related to the SPF-Partnership for Success project as requested by Ohio MHAS and OU. Liaison with Dr. Abe Wandersman on empowerment evaluation approach to project. Evaluation Design, Planning, and Development: Work with CU-VS and Ohio MHAS to determine and finalize project design, key activities, community needs, and Ohio MHAS information needs. Work with CU-VS and Ohio MHAS to plan for and develop community rollout. Participate in OPEC conference and facilitate as needed. Instrumentation: Develop instrument/interview and process to assess community/coalition readiness to engage in the SPF. Reporting: Assist OU-VS as needed with cross-site evaluation reporting and year-end reporting to Ohio MHAS. Final deliverables: June 30, 2015: Community Readiness Instrument/Interview and protocols Contract Period of Performance: Start date: December 15, 2014 End date: June 30, 2015 TOTAL COST: $48,246.00
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Logistcs
Principal Investigator: Andrew Gluck
Sponsor:

PIRE Evaluation Work Order to evaluate the implementation, outputs and outcomes will include an ROI analysis. The evaluation will be on three levels: Task 1: 1) Capacity Building within the HBCU campus to market and perform the program activities. 2) Short, Intermediate and Long-term outcomes for students (both as recipients of the prevention/treatment service AND as aspiring health care providers). 3) ROI assessment for SAMHSA as the initial funder, and a projected ROI for the university should they decide to continue paying for the program after year 1. Task 2: There are three deliverables under this statement of work. The first is a logic model that describes the provision of Mental Heal First Aid (MHFA) curriculum through faith-based organizations. The target audience is the adult community at large. Also included in the logic model will be a strand that captures the inputs, activities, outputs and outcomes associated with a train-the-trainer model for replicating MHFA training to a larger audience. The draft logic model is due by May 30, 2015 and final logic model, incorporating both A-G Associates' edits as well as SAMHSA leadership's edits, is due by June 30, 2015. The second deliverable is an EV-ROI Excel spreadsheet model that will allow the user to monetize projected outcomes of the MHFA training. The model will be submitted with all assumptions clearly expressed and all source documents clearly cited. The assumptions and cites will be contained in the comment boxes in the cells of the spreadsheet that depend upon those assumptions and citations. The draft Excel spreadsheet with the EV-ROI model is due June 30, 2015 and the final model incorporating A-G Associates' and SAMHSA leadership edits is due by July 31, 2015. The final deliverable is a PowerPoint presentation that offers an executive summary of the logic model and EV-ROI model. The draft PowerPoint presentation is due by July 31, 2015 and the final version of the PowerPoint Presentation is due by August 31, 2015. The month of September will be used to make any final edits to all three deliverables.
Technical collaboration with The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition
Principal Investigator: Elizabeth Yakes Jimenez
Sponsor: GAIN

I. OBJECTIVE The Service Provider shall conduct secondary data analyses and interpretation of data collected from surveys GAIN has previously completed, will lead and serve as a co-author on manuscripts for submission to peer-reviewed journals, and will provide technical input and support under the supervision of Grant J. Aaron, Manager MLR and shall provide the following Services: II. THE SERVICES a) General tasks: To accomplish the aforementioned objectives, the following activities will be undertaken: 1. Review and gathering of background literature; 2. Statistical analyses; 3. Manuscript writing; and 4. Technical input and collaboration with future manuscript writing b) Deliverables and Fee Payment Table: Deliverable Fee Payable Manuscript 1 for submission to peer-reviewed journal US $10,000 (ten thousand US dollars) Manuscript 2 for submission to peer-reviewed journal US $10,000 (ten thousand US dollars) Manuscript 3 for submission to peer-reviewed journal US $10,000 (ten thousand US dollars) c) Written work reports: Together with each invoice, the Service Provider shall provide Grant J. Aaron, Manager MLR with a written work status report using the template attached as Annex 3, detailing the Services completed and the progress made on the Services to be delivered.
Cigarette Warning Labels: Research Synthesis an Impact on Smoking Behavior
Principal Investigator: Al Stein-Seroussi
Sponsor: National Cancer Institute

PIRE is conducting a randomized control trial (RCT) to study the effects of cigarette warning labels on smoking-related attitudes and behaviors. Half the participants receive graphic warning labels and half receive text warning labels during a 28 day period, and we administer a survey once per week for five weeks. We are recruiting 2200 participants across two research sites (Chapel Hill and Oakland).
OhioMHAS Collaborative Approach
Principal Investigator: Matthew Courser
Sponsor: Ohio MHAS

A team of PIRE-Louisville staff is working in partnership with Ohio University’s Voinovich School and the University of Cincinnati’s Evaluation Services Center to conduct a developmental evaluation of three SFY 2015 state-funded prevention projects. These projects include: (1) evaluating and providing individualized technical assistance on sustainability planning for grantees selected to receive funds to support the implementation of evidence-based practices; (2) evaluating the implementation and preliminary outcomes from a mentoring initiative designed to support development and capacity-building of community coalitions; and (3) providing group-based and individualized training and technical assistance to Ohio’s youth-led prevention groups.

Principal Investigator: Andrew Gluck
Sponsor: DHHS/AHRQ

OhioMHAS Safe Schools - Healthy Students
Principal Investigator: Matthew Courser
Sponsor: OhioMHAS

Administrative - Meet as needed wiht OhioMHAS, ODE, and the Voinovich School to plan project, to review project progress, and to reveiw interim and final project reports. - Participate in meetings and trainings related to the SS/HS project as deemed appropriate by OhioMHAS, ODE, and the Voinovich School. - Coordinate as needed with evalutaion efforts being conducted by Case Western Reserve University. - Provide face-to-face, Skype, email, and telephone support as needed to Williams County SS/HS Core Management Team (CMT). Evaluation Design and Development - Work with SS/HS Federal Partners and SS/HS local communities to draft SS/HS Evaluation Plan for Williams County. - Complete SS/HS Evaluation Framework and detailed timeline for evaluation with Williams County. - Ensure that the evaluation framework and planned activites are consistent with the SS/HS Evaluation Framework. - Present results to Ohio MHAS and partners/stakeholders as requested. Final Deliverables 3/31/15 Progress Report for Williams County 4/30/15 Progress Report for Williams County 5/31/15 Progress Report for Williams County 6/30/15 Final Progress Report for Williams County
Epidemiologist Services for the Strategic Prevention Framework Partnership for Success (SPF PFS) Significant Prevention Resulting in New Generations (SPRING) Grant
Principal Investigator: Marguerite Grabarek
Sponsor: SAMHSA/CSAP

The Contractor shall provide an Epidemiologist to provide Epidemiological services to the SPRING (Significant Prevention Resulting in New Generations) Strategic Prevention Framework Partnership for Success (SPF PFS) Substance Abuse Prevention Grant funded by SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) for the LTBB Substance Abuse/Mental Health Program according to the specifications defined below under the direction of LTBB's Health Director and in accordance with state and tribal health standards. The Contractor's modified scope of work for "Year 1of the SPRING SPF PFS" Program shall consist of the following: ¤ Contractor acknowledges typical Grant year October 1 through September 29, year 1- schedule modified to February through September, therefore, modified scope is required. ¤ Contractor shall work with LTBB's SPRING Grant Program Coordinator on updating the needs assessment of the SPRING Strategic Prevention Framework Partnership for Success (SPF-PFS) Grant to accurately identify consumption patterns among the target group, consequences to the community as a result of consumption, current infrastructure supporting prevention efforts and gaps in resources and services. Multiple data sources will be used, such as available secondary data, key informant interviews or youth/adult surveys. ¤ Contractor shall work with the Tribal Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (TEOW). Attend other meetings, such as Advisory Council, via electronic communications or onsite as determined necessary by the Epidemiologist. ¤ Contractor shall attend the required annual SAMSHA grantee meeting with the Project Coordinator. Estimated costs for the travel associated with the training to be included within the contract. ¤ Contractor shall develop epidemiological survey methodology and submit survey methodology to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for approval. ¤ Contractor shall assist staff with developing accurate data entry processes. ¤ Contractor shall oversee Community Survey data is accurately entered by SPRING Staff into a database for analysis. ¤ Contractor shall submit Data Analysis Report to the SPRING Project Director by June 30, 2015. (Future year time-lines are as follows: Survey sent in early October by SPRING staff with a survey return deadline of January 31; data collected and organized by SPRING staff; organized data submitted to Epidemiologist for analysis and evaluation by April 15; Data Analysis Report issued to LTBB SPRING Grant Program Coordinator by June 30.) ¤ Contractor shall assess, analyze and measure epidemiological data, including the SPRING Community Survey and establish an infrastructure system, including the survey database. ¤ Contractor shall update SPRING's epidemiological profile. Submit a copy to the SPRING Project Coordinator ¤ Contractor shall present epidemiological findings in a written report to the SPRING Project Coordinator, Advisory Council Chair and the LTBB Grants Compliance Officer. ¤ Contractor shall submit monthly invoices reflecting details of time spent on LTBB's SPRING Grant Project, not to exceed the annual approved contract.
Grant Evaluation Services for the Strategic Prevention Framework Partnership for Success (SPF PFS) Significant Prevention Resulting in New Generations (SPRING) Grant
Principal Investigator: Marguerite Grabarek
Sponsor: SAMHSA/CSAP

The Contractor shall provide Grant Evaluation services of the SPRING (Significant Prevention Resulting in New Generations) Strategic Prevention Framework Partnership for Success (SPF PFS) Substance Abuse Prevention Grant funded by SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP) for the LTBB Substance Abuse/Mental Health Program according to the specifications defined below under the direction of LTBB's Health Director and in accordance with state and tribal health standards. The Contractor's modified scope of work for "Year 1of the SPRING SPF PFS" Program shall consist of the following: --Contractor acknowledges typical Grant year October 1 through September 29, year 1- schedule modified to February through September, therefore, modified scope is required. --Contractor shall assist with detailed development of the evaluation plan and timeline as provided by LTBB SPRING Grant Project Coordinator for the Strategic Prevention Framework Partnership for Success (SPF-PFS) grant and report whether or not it addresses the following areas: ---Has LTBB implemented the SPF-PFS ---Has substance abuse prevention capacity increased as a result of the SPF-PFS ---Has underage drinking and marijuana (30 day use) among 12 to 19 year olds reduced as a result of the SPF-PFS ---Have substance use and its related problems, including those represented by the National Outcome Measures (NOMs), been prevented or reduced --Contractor shall compare LTBB Baseline data available on underage drinking and marijuana use against comparative control data. Use evaluation instruments and measures to assess changes in LTBB underage drinking and marijuana use against the comparative control data, and narrate any intervening variables and contributing factors. --Contractor shall review of key documents and key informant interviews as described in the SPF-PFS narrative to document changes in tribal system capacity and progress with the implementation of the SPF-PFS to help complete the Grantee Level Instrument (GLI) required by CSAP at two points in time during the project. --Contractor shall review LTBB's processes and data; analyze if SPRING goals and objectives were met according to SAMSHA guidelines and LTBB's SPRING Strategic Plan --Contractor shall make recommendations, if needed, for LTBB's future SPRING Strategic Plan for improved data collection, documentation and internal controls --Contractor shall analyze SPRING Grant personnel for capability and make recommendations on training needs --Contractor shall evaluate program tools for consistency in data collection. --Contractor shall evaluate whether Project Coordinator timely submitted complete evaluation reports as required by the granting agency including but not limited to GPRA data and SAMSHA outcome reports. --Contractor shall submit fully completed written evaluation report by September 20th to the SPRING Project Coordinator, Advisory Council Chair and the LTBB Grants Compliance Officer. --Contractor shall provide at least one (1) site visit to evaluate SPRING Grant personnel, processes and procedures for efficiency and effectiveness regarding major SPF-PFS activities. Attend other meetings, such as Advisory Council, via electronic communications as determined necessary by the evaluating firm.
Prevention Evaluator Services
Principal Investigator: William Scarbrough
Sponsor: SAMHSA BG# 3B08TI010001

A. The Contractor agrees to provide necessary evaluation support to DMH/MHSASD for reporting evaluation data to SAMHSA/CSAP with the qualitative or quantitative documentation of task accomplishments and quality of products created for the facilitation of all evaluation duties. B. The Contractor will serve as an expert resource to DMH/MHSASD at the request of the Director of Prevention Services to provide consultation on program efficacy and evaluation of the Substance Abuse Prevention system in the state of Alabama. C. The Contractor will work with the State Prevention Advsiory Board (SPAB), Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (AEOW), Community Contractors and MHSASD staff to implement an evaluation system that tracks the implementation and evaluation of prevention plan goals, objectives, activities and performance indicators; development, execution, an evaluation of a state survey. D. The Contractor will facilitate the following duties: The evaluation will operate within the Guiding Principles for Evaluators. The America Evaluation Association has identified the following principles: 1. Conduct systematic, data-based inquiries about whatever is being evaluated; 2. Provide competent services; 3. Ensure the honesty and integrity of the entire evaluation process; 4. Respect the security, dignity and self-worth of the respondents, program participants, clients and other stakeholders with whom they interact; and 5. Articulate and take into account the diversity of interests and values that may be related to the general and public welfare. The Evaluator will: 1. Develop appropriate evaluation designs (e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental) based on meaningful evaluation questions; 2. Evaluation the technical characteristics of assessment instruments and protocols and help staff select appropriate instruments; 3. Develop valid and reliable surveys, interview protocols, or other desired instruments; 4. Implement the collection and management of evaluation data; 5. Analyze quantitative and qualitative data; 6. Write evaluation reports and communicate findings to diverse audiences; 7. Translate findings into specific program recommendations; 8. Develop a comprehensive evaluation system (plan) for substance abuse prevention services in the state of Alabama; 9. Assess the overall effectiveness of the implementation of prevention services in the state of Alabama; 10. Contribute to the identification of effective evaluation policies, practices, etc. for use with the substance abuse prevention service system in the state of Alabama; 11. Advise on the current means utilized to collect prevention plan goals, objectives, activities and performance indicators; 12. Monitor/track the implementation and evaluation of prevention plan goals, objectives, activities and performance indicators; 13. Develop/design a state survey; 14. Implement sound data collection methods and procedures; 15. Assist with execution plan of state survey; 16. Evaluate data from state survey to include development of an abstract and report that synthesizes analyzed findings that may include annual reports; 17. Conduct state and community level process and outcome evaluation activities; 18. Provide periodic presentations as needed and/or requested to the Office of Prevention Services and the state of Alabama substance abuse prevention system; 19. Attend and/or facilitate local, state, and or national meetings or conference calls as needed; 20. Evaluate the cost-efficiency of achieving prevention program goals; 21. Provide quarterly progress reports to the Office of Prevention (written); and 22. The Evaluator will provide ongoing feedback to DMHSASD staff, the State Prevention Advisory Board (SPAB), the Alabama Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup (AEOW), the Evidence-based Practice (EBP) Workgroup, and other entities as needed. The Evaluator shall provide all tasks as described to fulfill the evaluation goals as well as additional requirements that may arise through progression of evaluation relationship. The Evaluator shall meet all service and delivery timelines as indicated post contract award in a timely manner.
EUDL Network Training-Travel Only
Principal Investigator: Mary V. Gordon
Sponsor:

Internal project only-Travel for EUDL Network Training to be reimbursed by various clients.
Pathways to HIV Risk Among Orphan School Dropouts in Kenya
Principal Investigator: Hyunsan Cho
Sponsor: NIMH

The HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa has resulted in millions of children being orphaned in that region. In Kenya alone there are 2.3 million orphans, representing 13% of all Kenyans under 18 years old in 2006. Orphaned youth, compared to non-orphans, are more likely to drop out of school and to engage in HIV risk behaviors. Adolescence is a particularly critical time for both school dropout (e.g., when youth transition to secondary school) and HIV risk (when many youth experience sexual initiation and risk behavior). However, despite the remarkably high prevalence of youth being out of school in sub-Saharan Africa -orphans in particular -there is a lack of research on how social contextual factors protect against or exacerbate the likelihood of school dropout and engaging in HIV risk behaviors. Specific aims for the proposed study are: Aim 1: Identify and describe key contextual factors that either protect orphans from or put them at risk of dropping out of school; and Aim 2: Examine key contextual factors that either protect orphans from or increase their risk of HIV infection. The proposed study offers a unique opportunity to identify different risk groups for school dropout among orphan youth transitioning from primary to secondary school. We will select and invite 104 orphan youth for semi-structured interviews utilizing student survey data from an ongoing R01 study. The proposed qualitative study will contribute to obtaining an in-depth understanding about processes related to school dropout and the interpersonal, community, and societal contexts in which they occur - all potential pathways to the risk of HIV infection. This information is vital to enhance structural preventive intervention strategies targeted at keeping youth in protective school environments. The research also is important for youth who have exited the school system so that programs and policies can be developed to both encourage their return to school and mitigate any negative impact that out-of-school environments have on HIV risk.
National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences
Principal Investigator: Raul Caetano
Sponsor: NIH/NCATS

Dr. Caetano and others will use a robust evaluation process to quantify progress of CTSA goals. He and his colleagues will develop specific evaluation metrics to assess the performance of each CTSA component according to preset specific goals. Programmatic improvements will be made based on the results of these assessments. They will implement evaluation-specific studies aimed at improving both the translational pilot program and educational-related metrics that assess our educational activities. He will also participate actively in the Texas regional CTSA Evaluation consortium and the CTSA National Evaluation consortium.
Service agreement for administrative and technical support of UT staff/projects
Principal Investigator: Raul Caetano
Sponsor:

Minimum contribution of effort for Dr. Caetano is 20% effort. Co-teach the Epi III course with Drs. Kelder and Kohl. NIH Proposal Development with Drs. Kelder and Daiger. Mentor assistant professors in Dallas with whom Dr. Caetano has active projects with - currently Drs. Reingle, Businelle, Balasubramanian and Bandiera. Advise students in Dallas and in the MD/MPH in conjunction with Dr. Balasubramanian. Participate via ITV in Dallas faculty meetings, Epidemiology Department faculty meetings and other meetings as necessary.
Social, Familial, Neighborhood Factors and Drinking in Puerto Rico
Principal Investigator: Raul Caetano
Sponsor: NIAAA

Transfer in process
Culturally Adapted Brief Motivational Intervention for Heavy Drinking Latinos
Principal Investigator: Raul Caetano
Sponsor: PCORI

Economic Contraction and Alcohol-Related Suicides: A Multilevel Analysis
Principal Investigator: Raul Caetano
Sponsor: NIAAA

Raul Caetano will work with PI Kaplan and other co-investigators in all phases of data analysis, interpretation of results and manuscript writing. Caetano is a psychiatrist and alcohol epidemiologist with expertise in measurement of alcohol consumption and associated consequences, drinking among ethnic groups in the U.S., intimate partner violence and the association between alcohol-related problems and socioeconomic conditions. He has expertise on quantitative research methods and data analysis, which will also be employed in the present contract.
Towards an Understanding of the Connections in Creating Lasting Family Connections
Principal Investigator: Steve Shamblen
Sponsor: SAMHSA

The Creating Lasting Family Connections program has been shown to address a host of problems that serve as impediments to forming connections to family and community, which ultimately result in antisocial behavior, such as alcohol and other drug use. The CLFC model first tries to create receptivity to change by promoting connectedness. Whereas connectedness is a broad construct encompassing many facets, its core idea is that feeling like one is not connected to one's community in general, or one's family, parents, co-workers, contemporaries, or friends specifically results in (1) behavior that seeks personal rewards without regard to others and (2) a lack of a positive evaluation and reaction towards others. The present study attempts to operationalize these constructs with dimensions of impulsivity and agreeableness, respectively, to examine whether the changes observed are due to the putative mechanisms.
A Marriage Saved is a Penny Earned: The Economic Benefits of Marriage Education Programs
Principal Investigator: Steve Shamblen
Sponsor: HHS-ACF

Marriage and family strengthening programs have historically shown rather small magnitude effects in relationship outcomes. Despite small effects being found in the recent Safe and Healthy Marriage (SHM) program did not significantly impact relationship dissolution; however, the current study endeavors to show that these programs can be shown to have very large and important financial impacts on the population. Expected Value-Return on investment (EV-ROI) models previously developed will be (a) expanded and (b) applied to an evaluation of the SHM program funded by the ACF. These EV-ROI analyses will be compared to an analysis of program effects using more conventional tests of statistical significance and effect size calculations, similar to those already reported. The SHM data allow us to assess whether outcomes targeted by the SHM program and secondary outcomes that co-occur with these outcomes changed at 30 months.
Data Collection Analysis and Reporting (DCAR)
Principal Investigator: Steve Shamblen
Sponsor: SAMHSA/CSAP

DCAR combines the tasks of the current DACCC and DITIC and is designed to meet SAMHSAs GPRA requirements. The three primary objectives of the DCAR are (1) the development of a web-based data collection and prevention resource system for the collection of program performance and monitoring data of SAMHSA/CSAP grantees and selected contractors; (2) the analysis and reporting of performance data of SAMHSA/CSAP grant programs and selected contracts; and (3) the completion of the national cross-site evaluations of selected SAMHSA/CSAP grant programs. The primary purpose of data analyses for the DCAR is to assess the extent to which SAMHSA/CSAP is meeting its programmatic goals and objectives. The analyses will involve measuring actual process and outcome data against established goals and objectives as well as national and state trends used as benchmarks.
Native American Tribe Alcohol Legalization
Principal Investigator: Juliet P. Lee
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

This administrative supplement to our current center grant is in support of research to evaluate the impacts of potential legalization of alcohol sales and use on a presently “dry” reservation. We propose a community-based participatory evaluation of the impacts of legalization using a priori defined public health outcomes (e.g. alcohol-involved injuries, assaults, and roadway collisions) and health indicators identified by tribal members to assess the personal, social and economic impacts of this historic change in alcohol policy. Alcohol sales have been prohibited, yet people who live on the reservation experience substantial problems related to alcohol use.

The research includes four data collection components designed to be executed rapidly and in partnership with local organizations on and near the reservation. These include: (1) a Formative Ethnography which will collect in-depth interview data from key tribal leaders to identify tribal data sources, assemble a list of outcomes that will be meaningful and useful to the tribe, and identify potential Community Advisory Board members; (2) Archival Health Indicators assembled from (a) locally accessed Indian Health Service (IHS) data systems in collaboration with the Black Hills Center on American Indian Health (BHCAIH), a non-profit Native American health research center under the direction of Dr. Jeffrey Henderson (Cheyenne River Sioux), (b) tribal police data on violence, public drunkenness and drinking and driving, and (c) other publically available data including statewide and local hospital discharge records, arrest data, school performance, and demographic data; (3) a Rapid Rural Appraisal via contract with a tribal non-profit to identify data sources at the level of local communities, to identify current local sources and systems of alcohol distribution (e.g. bootlegging) and consumption on and near the reservation, and to assemble a supplementary list of health indicators meaningful and useful to the tribe; and (4) a comprehensive Alcohol Sales Outlet Assessment that enables the identification and characterization of all alcohol sales outlets in the immediate vicinity of the reservation (buffer defined), other key off-reservation retail markets identified by community members, and all commercial venues across the reservation likely to become locations of alcohol sales post-legalization (e.g., food stores).

Ethnic Differences in Drinking and Diabetes Care Activities
Principal Investigator: Patrice Vaeth
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Background: A growing body of research indicates that alcohol consumption may affect diabetes self-management and control, yet this association has not been examined in relation to ethnicity. This is an important area of study because there are significant ethnic differences in drinking practices between Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics which may impact diabetic management practices. Diabetes disproportionately affects Blacks and Hispanics relative to non-Hispanic Whites, in terms of its prevalence, and its associated morbidity and mortality. In order to prevent the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease, a thorough understanding of factors associated with its optimal management and control is required.
Project Aims: This study describes and compares the drinking practices (abstention, drinks consumed per week, and binge drinking) of those with diagnosed diabetes in relation to ethnicity and health status, while controlling for the effects of known correlates of drinking practices (age, sex, socioeconomic status, employment, and marital status). In addition, this study characterizes adherence to 8 diabetic clinical and self-care activities of Black, White, and Hispanic diabetics and examines how these activities vary in relation to drinking practices and ethnicity. The clinical care activities include: 1) annual hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) testing; 2) annual dilated eye examinations; 3) annual examination of feet by a health professional; 4) annual dyslipidemia screening; and 5) ever having visited a diabetes educator. The self-care activities under investigation include: 1) daily glucose self-monitoring; 2) at least weekly self-examination of feet; and 3) smoking abstention.
Findings: This study has found no significant ethnic differences in abstention rates among male and female diabetics and among female diabetics there were no significant differences in the number of drinks consumed per week or binge drinking. Among men, Mexican Americans consumed more drinks per week than whites (approximately 5 versus 3 drinks per week for Mexican American and white men, respectively) and were more likely to engage in binge drinking (approximately 37% versus 21% for Mexican American and white men, respectively). Regarding diabetes clinical and self-care activities, the bivariate analysis found that for each care practice examined, with the sole exception of smoking, non-adherence was highest among Mexican Americans. Regarding smoking, black diabetics were most likely to be current smokers. Bivariate associations between drinking status and non-compliance showed that for 5 of the 8 clinical and self-care activities non-adherence was highest among binge drinkers. Particularly, diabetics who binged one or more time in the previous year were more likely to be non-compliant with daily glucose self-monitoring and smoking abstention and were more likely to have not received annual dilated eye examinations, annual examinations of feet by a health professional, and annual dyslipidemia screening.
Conclusion: Binge drinking is prevalent among Mexican American male diabetics. Mexican American male and female diabetics are at increased risk for poor adherence to diabetes clinical and self-care activities. Binge drinking appears to be a risk factor for non-adherence to several diabetes clinical and self-care activities.
Environmental Approaches to Prevention, Component #6: Education and Dissemination in Support of Community Action
Principal Investigator: Kathryn Stewart
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

The Education and Dissemination Component will capitalize on the knowledge generated by the previous Center Grants and research at PRC and elsewhere as well as the emerging information provided by the new research components to better inform alcohol prevention efforts at the community level. We will strengthen the translational efforts needed to incorporate knowledge of the social ecology of alcohol problems into policy and practice in communities through the development of innovative tools that link research findings to decisions in communities. The proposed research components have important implications for prevention, especially related to underage drinking and risky drinking among young adults.
The aims of the Education and Dissemination Component are to develop and strengthen translational processes for this research through (1) Developing web-based tools to guide community prevention leaders in planning and decision making processes using a logic model approach; (2) Developing guidance materials based on key research findings from past and on-going PRC projects; and (3) Disseminating guidance materials using communication channels found to be useful and effective, including a dissemination website; an electronic newsletter tailored to the interests of communities by highlighting community efforts; and promotion of materials to gatekeepers and opinion leaders at the national level.
Specific Aim 1 will be accomplished in coordination with the Component 2 of the proposed Center Grant renewal, Environmental Strategies to Reduce Community Alcohol Problems: A Randomized Trial. Component 2 will develop tools for community planning related to underage and young adult drinking that will be adapted for web-based use by the Education and Dissemination component. Pilot sites will be selected and will be given access to the planning tools in three waves in Years 3-5. Sites in each wave will be asked for feedback and the tools will be refined based on that input.
Specific Aims 2 and 3 will coordinate with all research components to summarize and synthesize existing and emerging findings on the social ecology of alcohol problems and disseminate them through channels found in previous experience to be most useful and accessible to community audiences.
Environmental Approaches to Prevention, Component #5: Direct, Indirect and Total Spatial Impacts of Alcohol Outlets on Related Problems
Principal Investigator: Paul Gruenewald
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

The research proposed in this component will explicate some large scale social and economic dynamics that affect geographic distributions of alcohol outlets, expose populations to risks associated with those outlets, and increase rates of alcohol problems. We will measure the spatial and temporal scale of outlet effects to estimate the direct, indirect and total impacts of physical availability on problems. Theoretical and empirical work suggests that the social and economic forces that affect outlet distributions involve spatial interactions between people and places that take place over multiple years. Studies of problems related to alcohol outlets suggest that similar spatial and temporal effects underlie outlet effects. If so, previous studies that focused on single years and small areas may have underestimated the impacts of outlet densities on problems. Current empirical work also indicates that outlets are over-concentrated in low income minority neighborhoods, in populations which are known to consume less alcohol. This suggests spatial displacement in market response to demand as outlets open in retail areas near to, but not in, high income neighborhoods with populations which consume more alcohol. If so, residents of low income neighborhoods may bear excess social costs related to outlets in the form of greater problems.
The proposed research will assess the temporal and spatial impacts of the demand for alcohol upon outlet growth, MVCs, assaults, IPV and CAN from through 2016. The Specific Aims of the project are to:
(1) Assess the growth of outlet densities, by type, in response to known population surrogates for alcohol demand over space and time,
(2) Assess the growth of four problems related to alcohol outlets in response to surrogates for alcohol demand and outlet densities (MVCs, assaults, IPV, and CAN) over space and time, and
(3) Calculate direct, indirect and total space-time effects from these model
Statistical models and methods used in this component will also:
(4) Support archival evaluations of community-based environmental prevention programs (Component #2) and assist in the analysis of outcomes related to maladaptive parenting (CAN, Component #4).
The short term goals of the project are to provide estimates of the size and significance of space-time lags in statistical assessments of effects related to outlet densities for four alcohol related problems. The long term goal is to develop a sense of scale for these effects in order to grasp their full public health impacts.
Environmental Approaches to Prevention, Component #4: Maladaptive Parenting, Activity Spaces, Alcohol and the Substance Use Environment
Principal Investigator: Bridget Freisthler
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Current research suggests that a relationship exists between alcohol use and child maltreatment. To date, however, a dearth of information exists on how much of maltreatment occurs when a parent has been drinking or how local alcohol environments, including how where a parent spends their time exposes him or her to various drinking locations and contexts. In this application we build upon and extend that work in three important ways: (1) The proposed study assesses maladaptive parenting and related alcohol use during discipline events, allowing us to make statements about the incidence of alcohol-related harsh and neglectful parenting practices; (2) This prospective study uses individuals own activity spaces to understand how drinking locations and contexts may affect these relationships over time; and (3) building upon our findings related to drinking locations, this study will explicitly examine parents’ use of their local alcohol environments, including how social relationships may exacerbate or hinder drinking behaviors that are related to maladaptive parenting. Sixty semi-structured ethnographic interviews will allow us to assess and determine the range of parent activity and related drinking spaces, drinking contexts, and social supports to enable to development of survey questions on these topics. Two waves (Years 2 and 4) of multi-modal (telephone and web) survey data collection with 2,100 parents of children (birth to 10 years) sampled throughout 30 communities across the state of California will provide information about maladaptive parenting, alcohol use, activity spaces, and drinking locations and contexts that will address the following specific aims:
  1. Investigate whether or not parents are more likely to use abusive or neglectful parenting techniques immediately before, during and after parenting discipline events compared to when no drinking has occurred;
  2. Determine if the size and use of activity spaces by parents moderates the relationship between density of alcohol outlets, use of drinking venues and maladaptive parenting; and how changes in activity spaces affect use of outlets and drinking venues controlling for other known correlates of maladaptive parenting; and
  3. Examine how characteristics of social support networks (location to parent, drinking behavior, frequency of contact) moderate drinking behaviors and exposure to alcohol environments to affect maladaptive parenting.
Environmental Approaches to Prevention, Component #3: The Role of Drinking Contexts in Alcohol-Related Problems among Youth
Principal Investigator: Sharon Lipperman-Kreda
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Previous studies about the relationship between alcohol drinking contexts and drinking-related problems among young people are limited in that they have (1) focused primarily on young adult college students, (2) relied on retrospective recall of past events and behaviors, (3) not focused on separating out the unique effects of drinking location (e.g. beach, or house party) and setting characteristics (e.g. group size, gender composition), (4) typically focused on a small number of drinking contexts and drinking-related problems (e.g. aggression or risky sex only), and (5) been cross-sectional and have not studied dynamic relationships over time. These shortcomings limit our understanding of the contribution of drinking context to alcohol-related problems among youth and what approaches can be used to target high risk drinking contexts. The proposed research addresses these shortcomings by studying drinking contexts, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related problems among adolescents and obtaining longitudinal real-time data to reduce recall errors and better capture the dynamic relations among drinking contexts, consumption, and problems. Specifically, the aims of the proposed study are: (1) to identify and describe youth drinking contexts and setting characteristics; (2) to examine the dynamic relationship between youth drinking contexts and alcohol-related problems; and (3) to study the independent contribution of drinking location and setting characteristics and the potential interaction among them in predicting youth alcohol-related problems. A mixed-method approach with telephone surveys and ecological momentary assessments (EMA) will be used. Telephone survey data will be obtained at two time points from youth (N = 1,200) in 24 mid-sized California cities. Wave 1 of the survey will allow to initially investigate drinking contexts, consumption, and problems cross-sectionally, as well as to identify drinking and non-drinking youth (N = 216) for an in-depth study using EMA to obtain real-time data about alcohol use, drinking locations and contexts, and alcohol-related problems. The EMA study will allow us to (1) investigate the dynamic relationships among drinking contexts, consumption, and problems, and (2) inform the development of a comprehensive drinking contexts instrument for Wave 2. Wave 2 of the survey will allow us to investigate the relationships between context and alcohol-related problems at the population level. The longitudinal design will also allow us to investigate changes across time in adolescents’ drinking contexts and whether the selection of drinking contexts differs across periods of adolescent development. Results from the proposed study will guide prevention efforts in targeting high risk drinking contexts. Identifying how drinking contexts and youth characteristics change over time Medical press, March 17, 2015
Environmental Approaches to Prevention, Component #2: Environmental Strategies to Reduce Community Alcohol Problems: A Randomized Trial
Principal Investigator: Mallie J. Paschall
Sponsor: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

Hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems such as drinking and driving remain prevalent among adolescents and young adults in the U.S. A number of promising environmental strategies have been identified to address these problems, including party dispersal operations, underage decoy operations at retail establishments, and penalties for underage possession and consumption of alcoholic beverages and drinking and driving. Although research indicates that some alcohol control policies (e.g., raising minimum legal drinking age to 21, lowering legal blood alcohol limit for driving) have beneficial effects on alcohol misuse and related problems among young people, much less is known about the effectiveness of local enforcement activities. Research on the effectiveness of local alcohol policy enforcement is limited by substantial variability in the implementation and intensity of enforcement activities, and by methodological challenges in measuring their intensity. The proposed five-year study will advance our understanding of how effective local enforcement strategies are in reducing hazardous drinking and alcohol-related problems such as drinking and driving by young people. The study will capitalize on the Strategic Planning Framework/State Incentive Grant (SPF/SIG) in California from the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, and will involve 24 cities that are part of the 50-city sample meeting criteria for the "Environmental Approaches to Prevention" center grant. Half of the cities will be randomly assigned to implement environmental interventions such as party patrol operations, underage decoy operations, and DUI sobriety checkpoints. Archival data will be used to examine intervention effects on alcohol problems among young adults and teens in the 24 cities from 2012 to 2016, such as alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes, violent assaults, injuries, and underage drinking estimates from the California Healthy Kids Survey. Pre- and post-intervention interviews also will be conducted with 2,400 18- to- 30-year-olds to examine intervention effects on possible intervening mechanisms through which local enforcement strategies may affect alcohol use and related problems, including perceived enforcement of alcohol policies, perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, use of social and commercial alcohol sources, and drinking locations. Study aims are: (1) to determine whether there is a significant reduction in community alcohol problems (alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes, violent assaults, injuries, underage drinking), particularly among young people in SPF/SIG intervention cities relative to controls; and (2) to investigate the intervening mechanisms through which local enforcement strategies may affect alcohol use and related problems among young people (e.g., perceived enforcement of alcohol laws).