Economics of alcohol-involved traffic crashes in the USA: An input-output analysis
Injury Prevention (2016)
Zaloshnja, E. ; Miller, T.R. ; Lawrence, B.
Background: Preventing traffic crashes reduces crash costs paid by employers and employees. The related savings filter through the economy, impacting its performance. This study is the first to measure the impact of traffic crash reduction on a national economy. It focuses on impaired driving crashes. Methods: We analysed the impact of the almost 50% alcohol-involved driving crash rate reduction from 1984–1986 to 2010 and the impact if such crashes in 2010 had not occurred. The analysis entered published estimates of costs that employers, consumers and governments paid because of US impaired-driving crashes as production costs and demand changes in Rutgers University's input–output model of the US economy. For example, reducing medical costs paid by employers lowers the cost of labour inputs to production while reducing vehicle repairs raises demand for other goods. Running the model at current and alternative crash rates revealed the impacts of crash reductions on economic output, gross domestic product (GDP), national income and employment. Results: Alcohol-involved crash reductions since 1984–1986 increased economic output in 2010 by an estimated $20 billion, raised GDP by $10 billion, increased US income by $6.5 billion, and created 215 000 jobs. GDP gains from alcohol-involved crash reduction contributed 5% of the $200 million compounded average annual growth in US GDP from 1985 to 2013. Eliminating remaining alcohol-involved crashes would result in similar economic gains. Conclusions: Alcohol-involved crashes drag down the US economy. On average, each of the 25.5 billion miles Americans drove impaired in 2010 reduced economic output by $0.80. Those losses are preventable.
Are community level prescription opioid overdoses associated with child harm? A spatial analysis of California zip codes, 2001–2011
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2016)
Wolf, Jennifer Price ; Ponicki, William R. ; Kepple, Nancy J.; Gaidus, Andrew
Background: Non-medical prescription opioid use is increasing globally within high-income countries, particularly the United States. However, little is known about whether it is associated with negative outcomes for children. In this study, we use prescription opioid overdose as a proxy measure for non-medical prescription opioid use and ask the following: Do California communities with greater rates of non-medical prescription opioid use also have higher rates of child maltreatment and unintentional child injury? Methods: We used longitudinal population data to examine ecological associations between hospital discharges involving overdose of prescription opioids and those for child maltreatment or child injury in California zip codes between 2001 and 2011 (n = 18,517 zip-code year units) using Bayesian space-time misalignment models. Results: The percentage of hospital discharges involving prescription opioid overdose was positively associated with the number of hospital discharges for child maltreatment (relative rate = 1.089, 95% credible interval (1.004, 1.165)) and child injury (relative rate = 1.055, 95% credible interval (1.012, 1.096)) over the ten-year period, controlling for other substance use and environmental factors. Conclusions: Increases in community level prescription opioid overdoses between 2001 and 2011 are associated with a 2.06% increase in child maltreatment discharges and a 1.27% increase in discharges for child injury. Communities with higher rates of non-medical prescription opioid use may experience greater levels of child harms.
Coaching mental health peer advocates for rural LGBTQ people
J Gay Lesbian Ment Health (2016)
Willging, C. E. ; Israel, T.; Ley, D.; Trott, E. M. ; DeMaria, C.; Joplin, A.; Smiley, V.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) people are affected by mental health disparities, especially in rural communities. We trained peer advocates in rural areas in the fundamentals of mental health, outreach, education, and support for this population. The peer advocates were coached by licensed mental health professionals. We evaluated this process through iterative qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews and written logs from coaches and advocates. The six major themes comprising the results centered on (1) coaching support, (2) peer advocate skills and preparation, (3) working with help seekers, (4) negotiating diversity, (5) logistical challenges in rural contexts, and (6) systemic challenges. We concluded that peer advocacy for LGBTQ people with mental distress offers an affirmative, community-based strategy to assist the underserved. To be successful, however, peer advocates will likely require ongoing training, coaching, and infrastructural support to negotiate contextual factors that can influence provision of community resources and support to LGBTQ people within rural communities.
Contracting and procurement for evidence-based interventions in public-sector human services: A case study
Adm Policy Ment Health (2016)
Willging, C. E. ; Aarons, G. A.; Trott, E. M. ; Green, A. E.; Finn, N.; Ehrhart, M. G.; Hecht, D. B.
Sustainment of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) in human services depends on the inner context of community-based organizations (CBOs) that provide services and the outer context of their broader environment. Increasingly, public officials are experimenting with contracting models from for-profit industries to procure human services. In this case study, we conducted qualitative interviews with key government and CBO stakeholders to examine implementation of the Best Value-Performance Information Procurement System to contract for EBIs in a child welfare system. Findings suggest that stakeholder relationships may be compromised when procurement disregards local knowledge, communication, collaboration, and other factors supporting EBIs and public health initiatives.
Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980-2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015
The Lancet. HIV (2016)
Wang, Haidong; Wolock, Tim M.; Carter, Austin; Nguyen, Grant; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hay, Simon I.; Mills, Edward J.; Trickey, Adam; Msemburi, William; Coates, Matthew M.; Mooney, Meghan D.; Fraser, Maya S.; Sligar, Amber; Salomon, Joshua; Larson, Heidi J.; Friedman, Joseph; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbas, Kaja M.; Razek, Mohamed Magdy Abd El; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adelekan, Ademola Lukman; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène Kouablan; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Akseer, Nadia; Lami, Faris Hasan Al; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Alasfoor, Deena; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed S.; Aldridge, Robert William; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Aleman, Alicia V.; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Mohammad, Rajaa; Al-Raddadi, Salem; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amegah, Adeladza Kofi; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Ärnlöv, Johan; Artaman, Al; Asayesh, Hamid; Asghar, Rana Jawad; Assadi, Reza; Atique, Suleman; Atkins, Lydia S.; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Barac, Aleksandra; Bärnighausen, Till; Basu, Arindam; Bayou, Tigist Assefa; Bayou, Yibeltal Tebekaw; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhatia, Eesh; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bikbov, Boris; Birlik, Sait Mentes; Bisanzio, Donal; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brown, Alexandria; Burch, Michael; Butt, Zahid A.; Campuzano, Julio Cesar; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Rivas, Jacqueline Castillo; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chavan, Laxmikant; Chen, Wanqing; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cooper, Cyrus; Dahiru, Tukur; Damtew, Solomon Abreha; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, José; de Jager, Pieter; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Ding, Eric L.; Doshi, Pratik Pinal; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Elshrek, Yousef Mohamed; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Faghmous, Imad D. A.; Farinha, Carla Sofia E. Sa; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph Robert Ander; Foigt, Nataliya; Fullman, Nancy; Fürst, Thomas; Gankpé, Fortuné Gbètoho; Gebre, Teshome; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Gebru, Alemseged Aregay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gething, Peter W.; Ghiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Glaser, Elizabeth; Goenka, Shifalika; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goto, Atsushi; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guimaraes, Mark D. C.; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Haagsma, Juanita; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Haro, Josep Maria; Harun, Kimani M.; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hedayati, Mohammad T.; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Hoek, Hans W.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Idrisov, Bulat T.; Innos, Kaire; Iyer, Veena J.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karletsos, Dimitris; Kasaeian, Amir; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kayibanda, Jeanne Françoise; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kivipelto, Miia; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kumar, G. Anil; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton; Lam, Jennifer O.; Langan, Sinead M.; Lansingh, Van C.; Larsson, Anders; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Li, Yongmei; Lim, Stephen S.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Liu, Shiwei; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Razek, Hassan Magdy Abd El; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Makhlouf, Carla; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marcenes, Wagner; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Marzan, Melvin Barrientos; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Mayosi, Bongani M.; McKee, Martin; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R. ; Mikesell, Joseph; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mokdad, Ali H.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Mori, Rintaro; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Murimira, Brighton; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Nash, Denis; Nawaz, Haseeb; Nejjari, Chakib; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; de Dieu Ngirabega, Jean; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Ojelabi, Foluke Adetola; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ota, Erika; Padukudru, Mahesh Anand; Park, Hye-Youn; Park, Jae-Hyun; Patil, Snehal T.; Patten, Scott B.; Paul, Vinod K.; Pearson, Katherine; Peprah, Emmanuel Kwame; Pereira, Claudia C.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pillay, Julian David; Plass, Dietrich; Polinder, Suzanne; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prokop, David M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Rana, Saleem M.; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roy, Ambuj; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saeedi, Mohammad Yahya; Sagar, Rajesh; Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad; Sanabria, Juan R.; Santos, Itamar S.; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Sawhney, Monika; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shen, Jiabin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silpakit, Naris; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Simard, Edgar P.; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soneji, Samir; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Soriano, Joan B.; Soti, David O.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Talongwa, Roberto Tchio; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Tekle, Tesfaye; Shifa, Girma Temam; Temesgen, Awoke Misganaw; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thapa, Kiran; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Towbin, Jeffrey Allen; Tran, Bach Xuan; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Tura, Abera Kenay; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Venketasubramanian, N.; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wang, Linhong; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wilkinson, James D.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Wong, John Q.; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yakob, Bereket; Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Yu, Shicheng; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zoeckler, Leo; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Lopez, Alan D.; Murray, Christopher J. L.
Background: Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. Methods: For countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with data from antenatal care clinics and population-based seroprevalence surveys, and with assumptions by age and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution all assumptions used in each step are internally consistent. We estimated incidence, prevalence, and death with GBD versions of the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) and Spectrum software originally developed by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). We used an open-source version of EPP and recoded Spectrum for speed, and used updated assumptions from systematic reviews of the literature and GBD demographic data. For countries with high-quality vital registration data, we developed the cohort incidence bias adjustment model to estimate HIV incidence and prevalence largely from the number of deaths caused by HIV recorded in cause-of-death statistics. We corrected these statistics for garbage coding and HIV misclassification. Findings: Global HIV incidence reached its peak in 1997, at 3·3 million new infections (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1-3·4 million). Annual incidence has stayed relatively constant at about 2·6 million per year (range 2·5-2·8 million) since 2005, after a period of fast decline between 1997 and 2005. The number of people living with HIV/AIDS has been steadily increasing and reached 38·8 million (95% UI 37·6-40·4 million) in 2015. At the same time, HIV/AIDS mortality has been declining at a steady pace, from a peak of 1·8 million deaths (95% UI 1·7-1·9 million) in 2005, to 1·2 million deaths (1·1-1·3 million) in 2015. We recorded substantial heterogeneity in the levels and trends of HIV/AIDS across countries. Although many countries have experienced decreases in HIV/AIDS mortality and in annual new infections, other countries have had slowdowns or increases in rates of change in annual new infections. Interpretation: Scale-up of ART and prevention of mother-to-child transmission has been one of the great successes of global health in the past two decades. However, in the past decade, progress in reducing new infections has been slow, development assistance for health devoted to HIV has stagnated, and resources for health in low-income countries have grown slowly. Achievement of the new ambitious goals for HIV enshrined in Sustainable Development Goal 3 and the 90-90-90 UNAIDS targets will be challenging, and will need continued efforts from governments and international agencies in the next 15 years to end AIDS by 2030.
Alcohol use severity and sexual risk behavior among female substance users
Substance Use & Misuse (2016)
Trenz, Rebecca C.; Scherer, Michael ; Whitehead, Nicole Ennis; Latimer, William W.
Background: Substance use has been identified as one of the leading factors related to HIV transmission in the United States. The association of problematic drinking with sexual risk behavior puts individuals at greater risk for HIV transmission. This may be of particular concern for women given that approximately 66% of new HIV infections occurring through heterosexual transmission are female. Objectives: To investigate alcohol use severity and sexual risk behavior among females who use heavy, illicit drugs. Methods: Female substances users (N = 251; Mage = 31.90, SD = 7.67; 63.7% Black) self-reported past month alcohol use and lifetime sexual risk behaviors with both casual and steady sex partners. Results: Problematic alcohol users were more likely to use noninjection drugs and less likely to use injection drugs than abstainers and more likely than moderate alcohol users to use alcohol before/during sex with a steady partner. White problematic alcohol users were less likely to use injection drugs before/during sex with a steady partner than abstainers. Black problematic alcohol users were more likely to use non-injection and alcohol than moderate alcohol users before/during sex with steady partners. Conclusions: The current study extends the existing literature by taking a closer look at the role of alcohol use severity in sexual risk taking behavior of Black and White female substance users, a particularly vulnerable group for HIV transmission.
Where are the beds? Housing locations for transition age youth exiting public systems
Families in Society (2016)
Tam, Christina C.; Freisthler, Bridget ; Curry, Susanna R.; Abrams, Laura S.
Transition age youth (TAY) from the child welfare and juvenile justice systems experience high rates of homelessness, but little is known about the neighborhoods to which they return after they exit these systems. This exploratory study investigates whether housing options are located in areas where TAY exit public systems and if the characteristics of areas surrounding these facilities support their transition to adulthood. Results show that housing is not related to areas where TAY exit public systems. Further, supportive housing and shelter density is related to low-income areas. Implications for practice and policy on housing locations for TAY are discussed.
The evaluation of a workplace program to prevent substance abuse: Challenges and findings
The Journal of Primary Prevention (2016)
Spicer, Rebecca S. ; Miller, Ted R.
Workplace consequences of alcohol and drug abuse include poor performance, fighting, insubordination, and occupational injuries. To address the need for workplace substance abuse prevention, the PREVENT program, originally designed for the United States Navy, was adapted to the railroad workforce. This study evaluates the impact of the PREVENT program on alcohol use and smoking among young adults ages 18–29 in the railroad industry. We discuss challenges to study protocol faced by this evaluation in the reality of the workplace. PREVENT is a 2-day health promotion program that includes substance abuse and smoking modules. Using a prospective controlled before–after study design, we compare self-reported alcohol use and smoking pre- versus post-intervention among PREVENT participants versus a comparison group of workers. Comparison and case group non-equivalency at baseline is controlled for using a propensity score. The study sample suffered high losses to follow-up. In the analysis, we included those lost to follow up and applied an intent-to-treat approach that assumed, conservatively, that substance use by non-respondents was identical pre and post. In regression analysis PREVENT participants showed significant declines in drinking levels post-intervention compared to comparison workers, controlling for baseline and demographic factors. Relative to pre-intervention levels PREVENT participants consumed 56 % fewer drinks (relative rate = 0.44, 95 % CI 0.23–0.85) and consumed alcohol on 32 % fewer days (relative rate = 0.68, 95 % CI 0.50–0.93) compared to comparison workers. Changes in smoking behaviors were not significant. We conclude that PREVENT is a promising program for reducing alcohol abuse.
An exploration of alcohol use severity and route of drug administration among persons that use heroin and cocaine
Substance Abuse (2016)
Scherer, M. ; Harrell, P.T.; Trenz, R.; Canham, S.; Latimer, W.W.
Background: Alcohol use is prevalent among populations of persons that use illicit drugs. Problematic alcohol use among persons that use heroin and cocaine has been associated with poor treatment adherence, abstinence maintenance, and mental health concerns. Fully exploring how alcohol use severity interacts with route of administration (ROA) may be of notable importance in development of treatment protocols for persons that use heroin and cocaine. Methods: Data from a neurological and socio-behavioral assessment of risk factors among injection and non-injection drug users known as the NEURO-HIV Epidemiologic Study was used in the analyses. Participants (N = 551) included those who reported their level of past 30-day alcohol use and past 6-month heroin and cocaine use. Results: Multiple logistic regression analyses found that both problematic and moderate alcohol use were significantly less likely than abstainers to report injecting heroin and cocaine. Both problematic and moderate alcohol use was significantly more likely than abstinence to snort substances. Conclusions: Alcohol use may play a role in promoting or impeding the use of substances through certain ROAs. Treatment protocols that transition persons that use injection heroin and cocaine to noninjection use of these substances may be used in conjunction with treatments that reduce alcohol consumption as a means to reduce noninjection drug use.
Drinking and driving among undocumented Latino immigrants in Miami-Dade County, Florida
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health (2016)
Romano, Eduardo ; de la Rosa, Mario; Sánchez, Mariana; Babino, Rosa; Taylor, Eileen
There is concern that by failing to understand fully the risks associated with driving under the influence (DUI), some Latino immigrants—undocumented in particular—may be overrepresented in alcohol-related crashes. Until now, data on undocumented immigrants has been absent. Data came from an ongoing longitudinal sample of Latino immigrants to Miami-Dade County, FL. Descriptive analyses and regression techniques were applied. Compared with permanent residents, undocumented drivers are more likely to binge drink, less likely to understand DUI laws, and less likely to perceive the risks associated with DUI—three factors largely associated with high DUI rates. Despite facing these risk factors, undocumented immigrants showed low DUI rates, partly due to their limited amount of driving. Differences in risk perceptions and actual DUI events between Latino immigrants of different residency statuses suggest the possibility of early interventions aimed at reducing DUI among Latino immigrants.
Self-injury mortality in the United States in the early 21st century: A comparison with proximally ranked diseases
JAMA Psychiatry (2016)
Rockett, I. H.; Lilly, C. L.; Jia, H.; et al.,
Importance - Fatal self-injury in the United States associated with deliberate behaviors is seriously underestimated owing to misclassification of poisoning suicides and mischaracterization of most drug poisoning deaths as “accidents” on death certificates. Objective - To compare national trends and patterns of self-injury mortality (SIM) with mortality from 3 proximally ranked top 10 causes of death: diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and kidney disease. Data, Setting, and Participants - Underlying cause-of-death data from 1999 to 2014 were extracted for this observational study from death certificate data in the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research online databases. Linear time trends were compared by negative binomial regression with a log link function. Self-injury mortality was defined as a composite of suicides by any method and estimated deaths from drug self-intoxication whose manner was an “accident” or was undetermined. Main Outcomes and Measures - Mortality rates and ratios, cumulative mortality in individuals younger than 55 years, and years of life lost in 2014. Results - There were an estimated 40?289 self-injury deaths in 1999 and 76?227 in 2014. Females comprised 8923 (22.1%) of the deaths in 1999 and 21?950 (28.8%) of the 76?227 deaths in 2014. The estimated crude rate for SIM increased 65% between 1999 and 2014, from 14.4 to 23.9 deaths per 100?000 persons (rate ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.03-1.04; P?<?.001). The SIM rate continuously exceeded the kidney disease mortality rate and surpassed the influenza and pneumonia mortality rate by 2006. By 2014, the SIM rate converged with the diabetes mortality rate. Additionally, the SIM rate was 1.8-fold higher than the suicide rate in 2014 vs 1.4-fold higher in 1999. The male-to-female ratio for SIM decreased from 3.7 in 1999 to 2.6 in 2014 (male by year: rate ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97-0.98; P?<?.001). By 2014, SIM accounted for 32.2 and 36.6 years of life lost for male and female decedents, respectively, compared with 15.8 and 17.3 years from diabetes, 15.0 and 16.6 years from influenza and pneumonia, and 14.5 and 16.2 years from kidney disease. Conclusions and Relevance - The burgeoning SIM rate has converged with the mortality rate for diabetes, but SIM accounts for approximately 6-fold more deaths in those younger than 55 years and increasingly is affecting women relative to men. Accurately characterizing, measuring, and monitoring this major clinical and public health challenge will be essential for developing a comprehensive etiologic understanding and evaluating preventive and therapeutic interventions.
Barriers and facilitators to tobacco cessation in a nationwide sample of addiction treatment programs
Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment (2016)
Pagano, Anna ; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
Introduction: Smoking rates among addiction treatment clients are 3–4 times higher than those of the general population. Recent studies indicate that ceasing tobacco use during treatment may improve recovery outcomes. Across the United States, publicly funded addiction treatment programs vary widely in terms of their tobacco policies and tobacco cessation services offered to clients. Methods: The study reported here is the qualitative component of a larger study. Twenty-four programs were recruited from a random sample of publicly funded programs participating in the NIDA Clinical Trials Network. Semi-structured interviews were administered by phone to program directors. ATLAS.ti software was used to facilitate thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Findings: While all directors expressed interest in helping clients to quit smoking, they cited numerous barriers to implementing tobacco policies and services. These included smoking culture, client resistance, lack of resources, staff smoking, and environmental barriers. Directors also cited several factors that they believed would support tobacco cessation. These included financial support, enhanced leadership, and state mandates against smoking in addiction treatment programs. Conclusion: Addiction treatment programs are beginning to place more emphasis on tobacco cessation during treatment. However, furthering this goal requires substantial infrastructural and cultural change. These qualitative study findings may help to inform Single State Agencies (SSAs) to support publicly funded addiction treatment programs in their tobacco cessation efforts. In order to maximize effectiveness, state-level policies regarding tobacco cessation during treatment should be informed by ongoing dialogue between service providers and SSAs.
Spatial relationships between alcohol-related road crashes and retail alcohol availability
Drug and Alcohol Dependence (2016)
Morrison, Christopher ; Ponicki, William R. ; Gruenewald, Paul J. ; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Smith, Karen
Background: This study examines spatial relationships between alcohol outlet density and the incidence of alcohol-related crashes. The few prior studies conducted in this area used relatively large spatial units; here we use highly resolved units from Melbourne, Australia (Statistical Area level 1 [SA1] units: mean land area = 0.5 km²; SD = 2.2 km²), in order to assess different micro-scale spatial relationships for on- and off-premise outlets. Methods: Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models were used to assess cross-sectional relationships of three-year counts of alcohol-related crashes (2010–2012) attended by Ambulance Victoria paramedics to densities of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets controlling for other land use, demographic and roadway characteristics. Results: Alcohol-related crashes were not related to bar density within local SA1 units, but were positively related to bar density in adjacent SA1 units. Alcohol-related crashes were negatively related to off-premise outlet density in local SA1 units. Conclusions: Examined in one metropolitan area using small spatial units, bar density is related to greater crash risk in surrounding areas. Observed negative relationships for off-premise outlets may be because the origins and destinations of alcohol-affected journeys are in distal locations relative to outlets.
Perils of police action: A cautionary tale from US datasets
Injury Prevention (2016)
Miller, Ted R. ; Lawrence, Bruce A. ; Carlson, Nancy N.; Hendrie, Delia ; Randall, Sean ; Rockett, Ian R. H. ; Spicer, Rebecca S.
Objective. To count and characterise injuries resulting from legal intervention by US law enforcement personnel and injury ratios per 10,000 arrests or police stops, thus expanding discussion of excessive force by police beyond fatalities. Design. Ecological. Population. Those injured during US legal police intervention as recorded in 2012 Vital Statistics mortality census, 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project nationwide inpatient and emergency department samples, and two 2015 newspaper censuses of deaths. Exposure. 2012 and 2014 arrests from Federal Bureau of Investigation data adjusted for non-reporting jurisdictions; street stops and traffic stops that involved vehicle or occupant searches, without arrest, from the 2011 Police Public Contact Survey (PPCS), with the percentage breakdown by race computed from pooled 2005, 2008 and 2011 PPCS surveys due to small case counts. Results. US police killed or injured an estimated 55,400 people in 2012 (95% CI 47 050 to 63,740 for cases coded as police involved). Blacks, Native Americans and Hispanics had higher stop/arrest rates per 10,000 population than white non-Hispanics and Asians. On average, an estimated 1 in 291 stops/arrests resulted in hospital-treated injury or death of a suspect or bystander. Ratios of admitted and fatal injury due to legal police intervention per 10,000 stops/arrests did not differ significantly between racial/ethnic groups. Ratios rose with age, and were higher for men than women. Conclusions. Healthcare administrative data sets can inform public debate about injuries resulting from legal police intervention. Excess per capita death rates among blacks and youth at police hands are reflections of excess exposure. International Classification of Diseases legal intervention coding needs revision.
Improving the health of Cambodian Americans: Grassroots approaches and root causes
Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action (2016)
Lee, Juliet P. ; Kirkpatrick, Sean; Rojas-Cheatham, Ann ; Sin, Talaya ; Moore, Roland S. ; Tan, Sotheavy; Godoy, Shadia; Ercia, Angelo
Background: Cambodian Americans experience great disparities in health compared to other Americans, yet may be underserved by conventional healthcare systems. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a means to engage underserved communities in health research and programming. We describe results of our efforts to engage the Cambodian grassroots members as well as formal leaders in Oakland, California.Objectives: In addition to a community advisory group, we convened a Community Work Group (CWG), composed of 10 grassroots community women of varying ages and backgrounds. The project aimed to leverage the lived experiences of these women and their understandings of health and wellness in identifying specific health issues and developing culturally resonant strategies. Methods: The CWG met weekly with staff facilitators using methods for collective analysis including theater, body mapping, and other expressive arts. Results: The approach proved logistically challenging, but resulted in novel analyses and strategies. The group identified trauma, along with poor access to education, unemployment and underemployment, social isolation, and generation gap, together with community violence, as root causes of key behavioral health issues, namely, alcohol abuse, gambling, prescription drug misuse, and domestic violence. Strategies proposed and implemented by the group and project staff were a community garden, Cambodian New Year’s celebrations, and a museum exhibit on the Cambodian refugee experiences. Conclusions: Grassroots community engagement can support projects in identifying social determinants of health and developing the capacities of community members to conduct research and actions to improve health.
An examination of the effectiveness of child endangerment laws in preventing child fatalities in alcohol-involved motor vehicle crashes
Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (2016)
Kelley-Baker, T. ; Romano, E.
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of U.S. child-endangerment laws on the prevalence of child passengers fatally injured in motor vehicle crashes in which the adult driver was drinking. Method: We used data from the 2002–2012 Fatality Analysis Reporting System. We conducted both bivariate and multivariate analyses using Heckman selection models. Results: After adjusting for several cofactors, including driver demographics and blood alcohol concentration, child seat positioning, and seat belt laws, we found that passing a DUI child-endangerment law may have no impact at all on the likelihood of finding impaired drivers among those driving with children. Conclusions: There are a number of reasons why DUI child-endangerment laws have not been effective in saving the lives of young passengers who are driven by adult drinking drivers. These reasons include lack of publicity and education, as well as issues related to enforcement. Potential solutions are suggested that include examining sanctions and strengthening of DUI child endangerment laws.
A successful high-visibility enforcement intervention targeting underage drinking drivers
Johnson, Mark B.
Aims To measure the effectiveness of a high-visibility enforcement campaign to reduce rates of underage drinking and driving. Design Mixed-model analysis compares rates of drinking and driving (1) between the baseline and intervention period and (2) between the baseline and follow-up period. The impact of the intervention was evaluated using roadside surveys and web surveys. Setting Two college-town communities in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Participants Study participants consisted of 6825 drivers stopped, interviewed and breathalyzed on weekend nights. Web survey data were collected from 2061 students from large state universities in each community. Intervention Increased high-visibility enforcement of drinking and driving laws, featuring the use of passive alcohol sensors by police, along with a coordinated publicity campaign. Measures Roadside surveys measured breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) of drivers. The web surveys measured self-reported drinking. Findings Mixed-model analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction in drivers with BrACs = 0.08 g/dl during the intervention and follow-up periods, F(2, 5744) = 6.5, P < 0.01. The web-survey revealed that students under age 21 also reported significantly less driving after drinking during the intervention and follow-up periods, F(2, 1767) = 4.6, P < 0.01. Conclusions A high-visibility enforcement campaign targeting underage drinking and driving appeared to reduce both underage driving after drinking among US college students as well as drunk driving (breath alcohol concentration = 0.08 g/dl) at any age..
Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depression following perinatal loss: A pilot randomized controlled trial
Arch Womens Ment Health (2016)
Johnson, J. E.; Price, A. B.; Kao, J. C.; Fernandes, K.; Stout, R. ; Gobin, R. L.; Zlotnick, C.
This randomized controlled pilot trial examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) following perinatal loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, or early neonatal death). Fifty women who experienced a perinatal loss within the past 18 months, whose current depressive episode onset occurred during or after the loss, were randomized to the group IPT adapted for perinatal loss (the Group IPT for Major Depression Following Perinatal Loss manual developed for this study is available at no cost by contacting either of the first two authors) or to the group Coping with Depression (CWD), a cognitive behavioral treatment which did not focus on perinatal loss nor social support. Assessments occurred at baseline, treatment weeks 4 and 8, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. IPT was feasible and acceptable in this population. Although some participants were initially hesitant to discuss their losses in a group (as occurred in IPT but not CWD), end of treatment satisfaction scores were significantly (p?=?0.001) higher in IPT than in CWD. Confidence intervals around between-groups effect sizes favored IPT for reductions in depressive symptoms during treatment as well as for improvement in mode-specific targets (social support, grief symptoms) and recovery from a post-traumatic stress disorder over follow-up. This group IPT treatment adapted for MDD after perinatal loss is feasible, acceptable, and possibly efficacious.
Study protocol: Hybrid Type I cost-effectiveness and implementation study of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for men and women prisoners with major depression
Contemporary Clinical Trials (2016)
Johnson, Jennifer E; Miller, Ted R ; Stout, Robert L ; Zlotnick, Caron; Cerbo, Louis A; Andrade, Joel T; Wiltsey-Stirman, Shannon
Purpose This article describes the protocol for a Hybrid Type I cost-effectiveness and implementation study of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for men and women prisoners with major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal is to promote uptake of evidence-based treatments in criminal justice settings by conducting a randomized effectiveness study that collects implementation data, including a full cost-effectiveness analysis. Background More than 2.3 million people are incarcerated in the United States on any given day. MDD is the most common severe mental illness among incarcerated individuals. Despite the prevalence and consequences of MDD among incarcerated populations, this study will be the first fully-powered randomized trial of any treatment for MDD in an incarcerated population. Design Given the politically charged nature of the justice system, advantageous health outcomes are often not enough to get an intervention implemented in prisons. To increase the policy impact of this trial, we sought advice from prison providers and administrators about outcomes that would be persuasive to policy-makers and defensible to the public. In this trial, effectiveness questions will be answered using a randomized clinical trial design comparing IPT plus prison treatment as usual (TAU) to TAU alone, with outcomes including depressive symptoms (primary), suicidality, and in prison functioning (enrollment and completion of correctional programs; disciplinary and incident reports; aggression/victimization; social support). Implementation outcomes will include cost-effectiveness; feasibility and acceptability of IPT to clients, providers, and administrators; prison provider intervention fidelity, attitudes, and competencies; and barriers and facilitators of implementation assessed through surveys, interviews, and process notes.
Assessing community coalition capacity and its association with underage drinking prevention effectiveness in the context of the SPF SIG
Prevention Science (2016)
Flewelling, Robert L. ; Hanley, Sean M.
Community coalitions are a prominent organizational structure through which community-based substance abuse prevention efforts are implemented. There is little empirical evidence, however, regarding the association between coalition attributes and success in achieving community-level reductions in substance abuse behaviors. In this study, we assessed the relationship between coalition capacity, based on coalition coordinator responses to 16 survey items, and reductions in underage drinking prevalence rates. The coalitions were funded through the federally sponsored Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF SIG). We first examined whether coalition capacity increased over the life of the projects. Mean capacity scores increased for all 16 capacity items examined (N?=?318 coalitions), the majority of which were statistically significant. Analysis of the associations between capacity and reductions in underage drinking was limited to coalitions that targeted underage drinking and provided usable outcome measures based on student survey data for either past 30-day alcohol use (N?=?129) or binge drinking (N?=?100). Bivariate associations between the capacity items and prevalence reductions for each outcome were consistently positive, although many were not statistically significant. Composite measures of correlated items were then created to represent six different capacity constructs, and included in multivariate models to predict reductions in the targeted outcomes. Constructs that significantly predicted reductions in one or both outcome measures included internal organization and structure, community connections and outreach, and funding from multiple sources. The findings provide support for the expectation that high functioning community coalitions can be effective agents for producing desirable community-level changes in targeted substance abuse behaviors.